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John Erskine, conde de março (1675-1732)

John Erskine, conde de março (1675-1732)


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John Erskine, conde de março (1675-1732)

Líder jacobita que mudou de postura várias vezes ao longo de sua carreira. Inicialmente, ele era a favor do ato de união entre a Inglaterra e a Escócia, embora antes de cair do poder ele tivesse mudado para se tornar um defensor da revogação. Após a morte da Rainha Anne, ele se juntou ao acampamento de James Edward Stuart, o Velho Pretendente, e em 6 de setembro de 1715 ergueu a bandeira jacobita na Escócia, dando início à Primeira Revolta Jacobita. Embora tenha tido algum sucesso inicial, ele não conseguiu capturar nenhuma cidade significativa, e a batalha indecisa do xerife Muir (13 de novembro de 1715) foi sua última aventura militar significativa. O próprio James Edward chegou a março no final de dezembro de 1715, ponto em que a revolta já era um fracasso e, em um mês, os dois homens haviam abandonado o exército. Mar fugiu para a França com James Edward, mas perdeu o favor depois de 1723.

John foi comendador da Abadia de Dryburgh desde 1547, [2] e sucedeu seu pai como 6º Lord Erskine em 1552. Ele se juntou aos reformadores religiosos, mas nunca foi muito ardente na causa [ citação necessária ] Ele assinou a carta pedindo ao reformador calvinista John Knox para retornar à Escócia em 1557. A custódia do Castelo de Edimburgo estava em suas mãos durante a luta entre a regente, Maria de Guise, e os Senhores da Congregação, durante a qual ele apareceu ter agido consistentemente no interesse da paz. [3]

Quando Mary, Rainha dos Escoceses, retornou à Escócia em 1561, Lord Erskine era membro de seu conselho e era a favor de seu casamento com Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Sua esposa era Annabella Murray, filha de William Murray de Tullibardine e irmã de William Murray de Tullibardine, Controlador da Escócia em 1563. Ela era uma companheira frequente da Rainha Mary John Knox chamou Annabella de "verray Jesabell". Em 1565, Erskine recebeu o condado de Mar, quando a rainha restaurou o foral para ele e seus herdeiros "todos e saudem o referido condado de março". [4]

Mar tornou-se o guardião do filho da Rainha Mary, James, no Castelo de Stirling em 19 de março de 1567. [5] Ele evitou que o jovem príncipe caísse nas mãos de Lord Bothwell, e quando os nobres escoceses se levantaram contra Mary e Bothwell, Mar foi um deles. de seus líderes. Ele participou do governo da Escócia quando Mary foi presa no Castelo Lochleven e abdicou. [3] Quando Mary escapou de Lochleven, em 5 de maio de 1568 o regente Moray ordenou que Mar aumentasse a segurança em Stirling reduzindo o número de retentores no castelo. [6]

Em 5 de setembro de 1571, foi eleito regente da Escócia, mas foi ofuscado e talvez menosprezado por James Douglas, 4º conde de Morton. [3] Uma das primeiras ações de Mar foi executar dois prisioneiros, George Bell e George Calder, quebrando-os no volante. Dizia-se que esse método de execução seguia o estilo da França. Bell havia guiado os homens da Rainha no ataque a Stirling e Calder teria atirado no regente Lennox. [7] Bell confessou, após tortura, que gritou "Atire no regente!". [8]

Enquanto a Guerra Civil Mariana continuava, Mar veio a Leith e fez preparativos para sitiar Edimburgo e seu castelo, que foi mantido para a Rainha Maria por William Kirkcaldy de Grange. Ele colocou artilharia em Pleasance, a leste da cidade. As armas foram trazidas do Castelo de Dumbarton, Stirling, Dundee e Dunbar. [9] As armas de Mar foram direcionadas primeiro para a casa de Adam Fullerton, e depois para o muro da cidade. As paredes foram danificadas, mas Mar desistiu e voltou para Leith. Ele enviou a Rainha Elizabeth I para obter apoio armado da Inglaterra, seguindo o conselho de Morton. [10]

A causa do rei sofreu vários reveses. Em Aberdeen, as forças da família Forbes foram derrotadas na batalha de Craibstone e Corgarff pelo Marian Adam Gordon de Auchindoun. O castelo de Broughty, perto de Dundee, caiu nas mãos de Marian Laird de Parbroath. [11] Lorde Maxwell planejava se casar com Elizabeth Douglas em Dalkeith, mas as forças marianas emboscaram aqueles que transportavam comida, utensílios de prata e vinho para o banquete do noivado. [12] A rainha Elizabeth enviou dois embaixadores para a Escócia, Thomas Randolph para falar com o regente Mar, e Henry Carey, marechal de Berwick, para o senhor de Grange no castelo de Edimburgo. [13]

Mar estava em contato com William Cecil e William Drury na Inglaterra, principalmente por meio de cartas e mensagens transmitidas por Nicolas Elphinstone. Em 1º de agosto de 1572, ele declarou uma trégua de dois meses com o partido da Rainha, conhecida como Abstinência. [14] Ele escreveu em setembro para Margaret Douglas, condessa de Lennox, sobre o progresso da Abstinência e da Casa da Moeda operada no Castelo de Edimburgo por seus inimigos. Mar garantiu a ela que seu neto, James VI, de seis anos, logo seria capaz de falar com ela por si mesmo. Nessa época, ele ficou perturbado com a notícia de que uma das joias de Maria, Rainha dos Escoceses, havia sido comercializada na França e vendida a Carlos IX. A última carta sobrevivente de Mar para Cecil expressou sua esperança de resolver disputas de fronteira durante a abstinência contínua. [15] A Rainha Elizabeth escreveu para felicitá-lo por se tornar regente em 2 de outubro, e discutir as "práticas perniciosas" de Maria, Rainha dos Escoceses, para recuperar o poder para o preconceito de seu filho Jaime VI. Ela o incentivou a punir e executar qualquer pessoa implicada no assassinato do regente Lennox. [16]

Ele morreu em Stirling em 29 de outubro de 1572 após uma curta doença, amplamente aceita como tendo sido causas naturais. No entanto, algumas fontes indicam que ele pode ter sido envenenado a mando do Conde de Morton. A doença de Mar, de acordo com James Melville, ocorreu após um banquete no Dalkeith Palace oferecido por Morton. [17] James VI continuou a considerar Annabella Murray com afeto e escreveu a ela como "Minnie". Ela era governanta de seu filho, o príncipe Henry, em Stirling.

Arquitetura e cultura material Editar

John Erskine começou a construir a casa em Stirling chamada 'Mar's Wark', agora uma ruína sob os cuidados da Escócia Histórica. A outra sede da família era a Torre Alloa. Um inventário menciona sua prataria, toalhas de mesa e uma cama com cortinas de seda xadrez vermelha e amarela. As colunas da cama eram feitas de nogueira e torneadas (provavelmente esculpidas). [18]


John Erskine KT (1675 - 1732)

Ele sucedeu seu pai em maio de 1689 como 23º Conde de Mar na primeira criação do condado, e o 6º Conde na sétima criação de 1565, conforme considerado pela Câmara dos Lordes em 1875. Ele iria desempenhar um papel proeminente na Rebelião Jacobita de 1715.

Ele esteve presente nos parlamentos depois de 1696 e recebeu um foral da Coroa para as terras do Conde em 1699.

Ele apoiou William e Anne durante suas regências, embora não fosse um parlamentar ativo. Ele apoiou o Tratado da União das Coroas durante a primeira aprovação no Parlamento e, em 1705, facilitou a aprovação no Parlamento Escocês. Por sua ajuda, foi nomeado, em setembro de 1705, Secretário de Estado da Escócia, no lugar do Marquês de Annandale.

Ele foi nomeado Cavaleiro da Ordem do Cardo em 10 de agosto de 1705.

O conde foi um dos dezesseis Peers Representantes escolhidos para a Escócia pelo Parlamento de 1707 e foi constantemente reeleito durante o reinado da Rainha Anne. Ele continuou no cargo de Secretário de Estado e foi nomeado membro do Conselho Privado.

No entanto, com a ascensão do rei George I., Mar foi sumariamente demitido do cargo, o rei se recusando a vê-lo, e privou-o de seu cargo de governador do castelo de Stirling. Essas e outras queixas levaram o conde à causa jacobita. Este envolvimento o levou a ser conquistado e suas propriedades confiscadas. Ele fugiu para a França com James e permaneceu a serviço dele e representou James em Roma. Em 1721 ele deixou Roma e aceitou o cargo de ministro jacobita na corte francesa em Paris, mas foi dispensado dessa função em 1724.

Em 1725, ele tentou pedir perdão e ter permissão para retornar à Escócia, mas foi recusado. Em 1729 ele foi para Aix-la-Chapelle, então França, mas agora Aachen, perto de Colônia, na Alemanha, por sua saúde (é uma famosa cidade termal), onde morreu em maio de 1732. [3]

Este conde de Mar é particularmente conhecido por seu trabalho na reforma da arquitetura e da jardinagem. Ele é geralmente considerado como a pessoa que introduziu a maneira de plantar no deserto, e os jardins em Alloa foram preparados por ele. Ele também é creditado com desenhos e propostas de planos para a melhoria da arquitetura escocesa, entre outros para a reconstrução de Edimburgo, contendo várias sugestões que já foram realizadas. Ele ainda propôs um canal entre Forth e Clyde, um projeto também realizado.

Casou-se primeiro, em Twickenham, em 6 de abril de 1703, com Margaret, filha mais velha de Thomas Hay, conde de Kinnoull. Ela morreu em 25 de abril de 1707, aos 21 anos. Ele se casou em segundo lugar, em Acton, Middlesex, em 20 de julho de 1714, com Frances (Pierrepont), terceira filha do primeiro duque de Kingston. Ela foi declarada mentalmente incapacitada em março de 1730, mas viveu até 4 de março de 1761, quando morreu em Marylebone, Londres, com mais de 80 anos. [4]

Com sua primeira esposa, Margaret, ele teve:

Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine, nasceu por volta de 1705, mas morreu em 1766 sem herdeiro. John Erskine, nascido por volta de 1706, mas que morreu aos 3 meses.

Com sua segunda esposa, Frances, ele teve:

Frances Erskine, nascida por volta de 1715, que herdaria as propriedades de seu irmão, Thomas.

Outras crianças

John Erskine não era um homem conhecido por sua alta moral. Certamente o rei George I, pelo menos para um, questionou sua lealdade e integridade quando o destituiu. Há uma conjectura consistente, ainda não comprovada, de que ele teve vários filhos ilegítimos. Vários deles migraram para as colônias britânicas na América do Norte na época das autorizações decorrentes da 1ª revolta jacobita, quando John Erskine foi indiciado por traição, e estão sujeitos a pesquisas em andamento. Destes:

John Marr afirmou em alguma pesquisa [5] ter nascido em 1694 em Hillston Park em Monmouthshire, colocando assim o nascimento antes de seu primeiro casamento, com Margaret, e durante seus dias de sua "viagem", a ligação aparentemente ocorrendo logo após ele havia tomado o título das propriedades, mas antes de sua concessão. Ele teria cerca de 20 anos na época. John é conhecido por ter migrado para as colônias e ter sido um marinheiro. Ele naufragou ao largo de Cape Cod em 1750. No entanto, um John Marr, com a mesma história, também é declarado como filho de Edward Erskine, que se acredita ser um descendente dos Erskines de Alva. William Marrs afirmou em algumas pesquisas [6] ter nascido no castelo Balmoral em 1710. Nesse caso, sugeriria um caso após a morte de Margaret, sua primeira esposa, mas antes de seu segundo casamento, com Frances. É altamente improvável que o nascimento tenha ocorrido em Balmoral, uma vez que esta propriedade estava nas mãos da família Farquarson na época, é mais provável que o nascimento tenha ocorrido no castelo Braemar. Braemar, a menos de 10 Km de Balmoral, estava nas mãos do Conde de Mar. Embora o castelo tivesse sido destruído durante a Rebelião das Terras Altas de 1688, a propriedade teria sido usada como propriedade de caça.

Observa-se que o uso do sobrenome da propriedade era comum para filhos ilegítimos dos proprietários e o nome Erskine, na época posterior à Rebelião, foi atingido.


Casamento, questão e descendentes

Mar se casou com Lady Margaret Hay em 6 de abril de 1703, filha de Thomas Hay, 7º Conde de Kinnoull. Ela lhe deu um filho, Thomas, em 1705. Lady Margaret morreu quatro anos depois, em 26 de abril de 1707. Mar casou-se com sua segunda esposa, Lady Frances Pierrepont, filha do primeiro duque de Kingston-upon-Hull. A combinação foi excelente, pois forneceu a Mar os fundos para finalmente começar a saldar suas dívidas herdadas. Lady Frances enlouqueceu em 1728 devido ao estresse de seu exílio na França. Ela sobreviveu a março 35 anos, morrendo em 4 de março de 1767.


John Erskine, primeiro conde de março

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John Erskine, primeiro conde de março, (morreu em 29 de outubro de 1572, Stirling, Stirling, Scot.), lorde escocês que desempenhou um papel importante na deposição de Maria Stuart, Rainha dos Escoceses (reinou de 1542 a 1567), e ganhando a coroa para seu filho, James VI ( mais tarde, James I da Inglaterra) Mar foi regente por James em 1571-1572.

O pai de Erskine, John, 5º Lord Erskine (falecido em 1555), foi o guardião do Rei Jaime V (reinou de 1513 a 1542) durante sua minoria e de Maria Stuart, filha e sucessora do rei. Um protestante moderado, Erskine trabalhou por um acordo pacífico durante a luta armada (1559-1560) entre os nobres protestantes da Escócia e a regente, Maria de Lorraine, a mãe católica romana de Maria Stuart (falecido em 1560). Durante a luta, ele controlou o crucial Castelo de Edimburgo. Portanto, Maria Stuart o nomeou para o Conselho Privado quando ela começou seu governo pessoal na Escócia em 1561.

Em 1565, Erskine apoiou seu casamento malfadado com o traiçoeiro Henry, Lord Darnley (falecido em 1567). Maria concedeu-lhe o condado de Mar, comprovando assim as reivindicações de seus ancestrais e, em 1566, ela o nomeou guardião de seu filho recém-nascido, o príncipe James. Depois disso, ele se dedicou aos interesses de Tiago no conflito entre os apoiadores de Tiago e Maria. Mar evitou que Tiago caísse nas mãos do terceiro marido de Maria, Tiago Hepburn, 4º conde de Bothwell, e ele foi um líder dos nobres que expulsou Bothwell da Inglaterra (junho de 1567), depôs Maria (24 de julho) e fez de Tiago rei . Escolhido regente da Escócia em 1571, ele foi sucedido após sua morte por James Douglas, 4º Conde de Morton.


Mar, John Erskine, 11º conde de

Mar, John Erskine, 11º conde de [S] (1675 e # x20131732). Sendo as dívidas sua herança, Mar entrou na política em 1696 como substituto do partido da corte na Escócia, liderado pelo duque de Queensberry até sua queda em 1704. Mar voltou a ocupar o cargo em 1705, ajudando-o a promover o Ato de União no Parlamento escocês em 1707. Eleito para Westminster como um par escocês representativo, em 1713 ele apoiava uma moção de revogação da União.

Tendo falhado em atrair o favor de Jorge I, ele navegou para a Escócia para elevar o padrão da rebelião jacobita no Braes of Mar. A resposta nacional foi espetacular, mas ele arruinou o empreendimento por pura incompetência. Depois de 1716, ele viveu no exílio, até 1725 em associação com a dinastia exilada, embora depois de 1719 como um agente duplo em busca de favores do governo de Westminster. Ele trabalhou com planos de melhoria econômica depois de 1725, mas morreu sem restaurar suas propriedades.

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JOHN CANNON "Março, John Erskine, 11º conde de." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Recuperado em 17 de junho de 2021 de Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mar-john-erskine-11th-earl

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História

Mar foi um dos sete antigos reinos ou províncias da Escócia cujos governantes eram conhecidos pelo título de & # 8216mormaer & # 8217. Seu território ficava naquela parte de Aberdeenshire, em grande parte entre os rios Don e Dee. Donald, Mormaer de Mar, lutou na Batalha de Clontarf, onde o Grande Rei da Irlanda, Brian Born, repeliu os invasores nórdicos em 1014. No foral que erigiu a Abadia de Scone em 1114, o Mormaer de Mar é nomeado como Rothri , e ele recebe o título latino & # 8216Comes & # 8217, que geralmente equivale ao posto moderno de conde. Rothri foi sucedido por Morgund, segundo conde de Mar, que testemunhou, algum tempo antes de 1152, fretamentos para a Abadia de Dunfermline. William, o quinto Conde, foi um dos Regentes da Escócia e Grande Chamberlain do Reino em 1264. Seu filho, Donald, foi nomeado cavaleiro em Scone por Alexandre III em setembro de 1270. Ele testemunhou o contrato de casamento da Princesa Margaret da Escócia com o Rei Eric da Noruega, e mais tarde reconheceu a filha de Eric & # 8217s, Margaret, a Donzela da Noruega, como a legítima herdeira do trono. Quando a criança morreu em Orkney em seu caminho para reivindicar seu reino, eventos foram colocados em movimento que acabariam por levar ao campo de Bannockburn.

Os Condes de Mar apoiaram a reivindicação de Bruce ao trono, e a filha mais velha de Donald, Isabel de Mar, tornou-se a primeira esposa de Robert o Bruce. Seu irmão, Gratney, o sétimo Conde, casou-se com a irmã de Robert, Christian, fortalecendo ainda mais a aliança de Bruce. Gratney morreu por volta de 1305, deixando um único filho, Donald, como sucessor no condado. Ele foi capturado em Methven em 1306 e levado como refém para a Inglaterra, onde permaneceu em cativeiro durante a luta pela liberdade da Escócia. Ele foi libertado após a vitória em Bannockburn, quando vários presos, incluindo a esposa, irmã e filha do Rei Robert, foram trocados pelo Conde de Hereford. Em 1332, Mar foi escolhido regente do reino, cargo que ocupou por apenas dez dias. Na véspera de sua eleição, Edward Balliol apareceu no Forth com uma frota inglesa. Encontrando pouca oposição, Balliol marchou para Perth enquanto Mar rapidamente reunia suas tropas para enfrentar os invasores nas margens do rio Earn. As forças de Balliol estavam em grande desvantagem numérica, mas o exército escocês carecia de disciplina e liderança eficaz. Na calada da noite, em 12 de agosto de 1332, os ingleses cruzaram o rio por um vau secreto e caíram sobre o exército escocês durante o sono, derrotando-os totalmente. O conde de Mar estava entre os caídos. Thomas, o nono conde, morreu sem deixar descendência, e o título passou para sua irmã, Margaret, e por meio dela, para sua filha, Isabel. Ela tomou como seu segundo marido Alexander Stewart, o filho natural do temido Lobo de Badenoch. Ela concedeu o aluguel vitalício do condado a seu marido Stewart, mas reservou a sucessão para seus próprios herdeiros legítimos. Ela morreu sem descendência por volta de 1407, e seu parente, Robert, um descendente de Elyne, filha do sétimo conde, tornou-se & # 8216de jure & # 8217 décimo terceiro conde de março. Seu filho, Thomas, teve seu título legítimo negado quando James II reivindicou o condado através dos alegados direitos de Alexander Stewart, marido da Condessa Isabel & # 8217s. O título foi então concedido primeiro ao filho do rei, Príncipe John, e mais tarde, em 1562, a James Stewart, o meio-irmão ilegítimo de Maria, Rainha dos Escoceses. Em 1565, a Rainha Maria concedeu uma licença a João, décimo oitavo conde, restaurando o título. A rainha declarou que foi & # 8216 movida por consciência a devolver aos herdeiros legítimos sua justa herança, da qual foram mantidos de fora por Governantes e Oficiais obstinados e parciais & # 8217.

John, o vigésimo Conde, foi nomeado governador do Castelo de Edimburgo em 1615. Ele também foi juiz da Suprema Corte até 1630. Os condes não apoiavam as políticas religiosas de Carlos l & # 8217, mas quando ficou claro que apoiavam o Pacto significava oposição armada ao rei, tanto o conde quanto seu filho mais velho, John, Lorde Erskine, pegaram em armas na causa monarquista. O conde entreteve Montrose em 1645 em seu castelo em Alloa. Lord Erskine acompanhou o capitão-geral do rei e cavalgou na Batalha de Kilsyth em agosto de 1645. As propriedades da família foram confiscadas até que Carlos II subisse ao trono em 1660. Carlos, o vigésimo segundo conde, criou o 21º Regimento de Foot, ou Royal Scots Fusiliers, em 1679, e tornou-se seu primeiro coronel. João, o vigésimo terceiro conde, foi nomeado duque de março em 1715 pelo exilado Tiago VIII, embora por sua lealdade jacobita todas as suas honras escocesas tenham sido perdidas. O condado foi restaurado para John, 24 de março, por lei do Parlamento em 1824. Em 1875, a Câmara dos Lordes determinou que o título de Conde de Mar reivindicado por Walter Erskine, décimo segundo conde de Kellie, era diferente da antiga dignidade de março. Portanto, há um conde de & # 8216Mar e Kellie & # 8217, o chefe dos Erskines, que não deve ser confundido com a condessa de março.

Scottish Clan & amp Family Encyclopedia, 1998 Barnes & amp Noble Books

Mormaers de Mar e Condes de Mar

[Antigos Mormaers de Mar desconhecidos para a história ou lenda]
Melbridga (cerca de 890)
?
Cainnech (?)
Emin (ou Emkin) MacCainnech (antes de 1014)
Donald (Domhnall) MacEmin (falecido em 1014, Batalha de Clontarf)
Martachus (? & # 8211 1065 & # 8211?)
Gratnach (ou Gartnait ou Gratney) (filho de Martachus?) (?)
?

Ehislach?
Ruadri (ou Rothri ou Roderick) (MacEmin ou Ehislach) & # 8211 1o Conde (? & # 8211 1114 & # 8211 1141?)
Gillocher (ou Gylocher ou Gille Chlerig) (Ehislach) & # 8211 Não numerado (1140s)
Morgund (ou Morgan ou Morggán) MacGylocher (Ehislach) & # 8211 2º Conde (falecido antes de 1183)
Gilchrist (Gille Crist) (provavelmente não é o filho de Morgund & # 8217s) e # 8211 3º Conde (morreu por volta de 1203)
Duncan (Donnchadh) MacGylocher (Ehislach) e # 8211 4º Conde (falecido por volta de 1244)
William (Uilleam) MacGylocher (Ehislach) & # 8211 5º Conde (falecido em 1276 ou 1281)
Donald (Domhnall) MacGylocher (Ehislach) & # 8211 6º Conde (falecido em 1295 ou 1297 ou 1301)
Gratney (Gartnait) MacGylocher (Ehislach) & # 8211 7º Conde (morreu por volta de 1305)
Donald (Domhnall) MacGylocher (Ehislach) e # 8211 8º Conde (falecido em 1332)
Thomas MacGylocher (Ehislach) & # 8211 9º Conde (falecido em 1374 ou 1377)
Margaret MacGylocher (Ehislach) e # 8211 10ª Condessa (falecida em 1391 ou 1393)

Douglas
William Douglas & # 8211 Não numerado (porque conde por casamento) (falecido em 1384)
James Douglas & # 8211 Não numerado (embora filho de Margarida de Mar) (falecido em 1388)
Isabel Douglas (irmã de James) e # 8211 11ª condessa (nascida em 1360 e # 8211 morreu em 1408)

Drummond
Malcolm Drummond & # 8211 Não numerado (porque conde por casamento) (morreu em 1402)

Stewart
Alexander Stewart & # 8211 Não numerado (porque conde por casamento) (morreu em 1435)

Erskine
Robert Erskine e # 8211 De Jure 12º Conde (falecido em 1452)
Thomas Erskine & # 8211 De Jure 13º Conde (falecido em 1493)
Alexander Erskine & # 8211 De Jure 14º Conde (falecido em 1509)
Robert Erskine e # 8211 De Jure 15º Conde (falecido em 1513)
John Erskine & # 8211 De Jure 16º Conde (falecido em 1552)
John Erskine & # 8211 De Jure 17º Conde, De Facto após 1565 (falecido em 1572)
John Erskine & # 8211 18º Conde (falecido em 1634)
John Erskine & # 8211 19º Conde (falecido em 1653)
John Erskine e # 8211 20º Conde (falecido em 1688)
Charles Erskine & # 8211 21º conde (falecido em 1689)
John Erskine & # 8211 22º Conde [título de duque de Mar-Jacobita em 1715] (falecido em 1732)
Thomas Erskine & # 8211 Não numerado (falecido em 1766)
Frances Erskine & # 8211 Não numerada (faleceu em 1776)
John Frances Erskine & # 8211 23º Conde (falecido em 1825)
John Frances Erskine & # 8211 24º Conde (falecido em 1828)
John Frances Miller Erskine & # 8211 25º Conde (falecido em 1866)

Goodeve-Erskine
John Frances Goodeve Erskine & # 8211 26º Conde (falecido em 1930)
Johnn Francis Hamilton Erskine & # 8211 27º Conde (falecido em 1932)

Novo
Lionel Walter Young & # 8211 29º conde (falecido em 1965)

faixa
James Clifton Lane & # 8211 29th Earl (renunciou em 1975)
Margaret Alison Lane & # 8211 a R. H. a Condessa de Mar & # 8211 30ª Condessa (nascida em 1940 e # 8211 atual)
Presuntivo de herdeiro: Susan Helen & # 8211 Mistress of Mar (nascida em 1963)
Lady Susan & # 8217s Presuntivo de herdeiro: Isabel Alice & # 8211 Isabel de Mar (nascida em 1991)

Nosso chefe

Margaret of Mar, 31th Holder of the Earldom (nascida em 19 de setembro de 1940) é membro da Câmara dos Lordes, uma nobre hereditária eleita e titular do Earldom of Mar original, o título de nobreza mais antigo do Reino Unido. Ela é a única condessa suo jure na Câmara dos Lordes.

Vida pregressa
Ela nasceu Margaret Alison Lane, filha de James Lane, Mestre de Mar, o Herdeiro Presuntivo de Lionel Erskine-Young, 29º Conde de Mar, sua prima uma vez removida (ambos eram descendentes de uma irmã de John Goodeve-Erskine, 27º Conde de Mar).
Lane tinha dois irmãos mais novos: David Charles Lane e Janet Helen Lane. Como o 29º Conde não tinha filhos e não era casado, e não esperava ter filhos no futuro, esperava-se que seu pai e seu irmão fossem sucessores do Conde (e do Comando do Nome e das Armas de Mar), e então, o pai dela mudou o sobrenome dele e do filho para & # 8220 de março & # 8221 em 1959.

Senhora de Mar
O pai de Lane & # 8217 sucedeu como 30º Conde de Mar em 1965, ela ficou conhecida como Lady Mar, e seu irmão ficou conhecido como Lord Garioch. No entanto, Lord Garioch morreu jovem em 1967. Assim, Margaret tornou-se Herdeira Presuntiva e ficou conhecida como A Senhora de Mar. Seu sobrenome foi então alterado para & # 8220 de Mar & # 8221 pouco depois.

Condessa de março
Em 1976, o 30º Conde morreu e a Senhora de Mar tornou-se a 31ª Condessa de Março. Assim, ela entrou na Câmara dos Lordes. Com a Lei da Câmara dos Lordes de 1999, Lady Mar normalmente teria sido removida da Câmara dos Lordes. No entanto, a lei previa que noventa e dois pares hereditários seriam eleitos para a Câmara. Lady Mar estava entre os pares hereditários escolhidos para servir, e é a única condessa suo jure na Câmara dos Lordes em 2005. Ela se senta como cross-bencher, o que significa que ela não está alinhada com nenhum partido político em particular.
Como Condessa de Mar, ela é também Titular 11ª Duquesa de Mar no Pariato Jacobita (no qual Peerage ela é contada como 32ª Condessa de Mar, já que a atingidora de 1716-1824 não é reconhecida pelos Jacobitas).
Nota: devido a uma disputa do século XIX, existe outro conde de Mar, James Thorne Erskine, 14º conde de Mar e 16º conde de Kellie. Mesmo assim, Lady Margaret é a legítima herdeira de março.

Família
Lady Mar se casou três vezes, primeiro com Edwin Noel Artiss, depois com John Salton e, finalmente, com John Jenkin. Do primeiro casamento, ela teve uma filha: Susan Helen de Mar, Mistress of Mar (nascida em 1963), a herdeira presuntiva dos nobres de sua mãe. Lady Susan é casada com Bruce Alexander Wyllie e tem duas filhas, Isabel e Frances, a primeira das quais provavelmente sucederá como condessa de Mar depois de sua mãe e avó.

Títulos desde o nascimento
• Miss Margaret Lane (19 de setembro de 1940 e # 8211 30 de maio de 1959)
• Sra. Margaret Artiss (30 de maio de 1959 e # 8211 1965)
• Lady Margaret Artiss (1965 & # 8211 8 de janeiro de 1967)
• Lady Margaret of Mar, Mistress of Mar (8 de janeiro de 1967 e # 8211 21 de abril de 1975)

Os Erskines

O clã Erskine é um clã escocês das Terras Baixas.

Origens do Nome
Erskine é uma área ao sul do rio Clyde e dez milhas a oeste de Glasgow. Acredita-se que o nome seja antigo ou inglês antigo para terrenos verdes crescentes. No século 13, durante o reinado do rei Alexandre II da Escócia, a primeira pessoa conhecida com o nome Erskine foi Henry Erskine, que também era o proprietário do Baronato de Erskine.
Em gaélico escocês moderno, o nome é escrito & # 8220Arascain & # 8221.

Guerras da Independência da Escócia
Durante as Guerras da Independência da Escócia, o Clã Erskine apoiava o Rei Robert o Bruce.

Século 15
Em 1435, Alexander Stewart, o Conde de Mar morreu e Sir Robert Erskine reivindicou o título. isso também o tornou o chefe do Clã Mar. No entanto, o rei retirou o condado em 1457, afirmando que ele só poderia pertencer a um Stuart Real. Dez anos depois, Sir Robert foi criado o primeiro Lord Erskine. Esta sucessão ilegal foi finalmente interrompida por Maria, Rainha dos Escoceses, que providenciou para que o legítimo herdeiro John Erskine, 17º Conde de Mar fosse restaurado.

Século 16 e guerras anglo-escocesas
Durante as Guerras Anglo-Escocesas, o 4º & # 8216Lord Erskine & # 8217 liderou o Clã Erskine na Batalha de Flodden Field em 1513, onde ele foi morto.
Mary Queen of Scots estava sob os cuidados do 5º Lord Erskine e quando ele morreu ela fez de John Eskine o 6º Lord Erskine o Conde de Mar: John Erskine, 17º Conde de Mar

Séc. 18 e revoltas jacobitas
No início das revoltas jacobitas, parecia provável que os Erskines apoiariam o governo britânico. No entanto, o chefe do Clã Erskine, John Erskine, 22º Conde de Mar, viajou para Londres em 1714 esperando o cargo de Secretário de Estado da Escócia. No entanto, ele não recebeu o trabalho e, como resultado, ele se tornou um jacobita. Ele então reuniu um exército de mais de dez mil homens para a causa jacobita. Esta força não foi usada em seu potencial durante a Batalha de Sheriffmuir em 13 de novembro de 1715, onde os jacobitas foram derrotados. O conde de Mar então fugiu da Escócia para Saint-Germain na França, onde traiu seus associados jacobitas. Ele perdeu sua linha do Conde de Mar e não foi restaurada até 1824.

Chefe do Clã
O atual Chefe do Clã Erskine é James Erskine, 14º Conde de Mar, que descende dos Condes de Mar, sétima Criação (1565) (conforme considerado pela Câmara dos Lordes em 1875).
Deve-se notar que o Clã Mar agora tem uma chefe separada Margaret de Mar, 30ª Condessa de Mar, que descende dos Condes de Mar, primeira Criação.

Castelos do Clã
• A House of Dun e o Dun Estate foram o lar da família do Clã Erskine de 1375 até 1980, mas as evidências arqueológicas mostram que as pessoas viveram aqui por pelo menos 9.000 anos. John Erskine de Dun foi uma figura chave na Reforma Escocesa.
• O Castelo de Kildrummy foi a sede do Clã Erskine até ser abandonado após as insurreições jacobitas fracassadas em 1716.
• O Castelo de Corgarff foi adquirido por John Erskine, 18º Conde de Mar em 1626.
• O Castelo Kellie foi comprado por Sir Thomas Erskine em 1613.
• A Abadia de Dryburgh foi dada ao Conde de Mar pelo Rei James VI da Escócia em 1544.
• Torre Alloa
• Castelo Dirleton
• Castelo Braemar
• Castelo Rosslyn

Os Castelos de Mar

O Castelo de Braemar é um castelo perto de Braemar, na região de Aberdeenshire, na Escócia.

A primeira torre do Castelo de Braemar foi construída em 1628 por John Erskine, o 7º Conde de Mar para substituir o antigo Castelo de Kindrochit. Uma guarnição importante durante o levante jacobita, Braemar foi atacado e queimado por John Farquharson, o Coronel Negro de Inverey em 1689, matando John Erskine. O castelo ficou em ruínas até 1748, quando foi alugado ao governo pelo clã Farquharson de Invercauld, agora para servir de guarnição às tropas de Hanôver. Em alguns quartos, ainda podem ser vistos graffiti deixados pelos soldados ingleses.

Em 1797, o castelo foi devolvido ao clã Farquharson e sua restauração para uso como sede do clã começou. O 12º Laird de Invercauld entreteve a Rainha Victoria lá enquanto ela comparecia ao Braemar Gathering.

É um castelo em L com uma parede cortina em forma de estrela e torres angulares de três andares. A entrada principal do castelo mantém uma estrutura de ferro original.

Entre as antiguidades em exibição no castelo estão uma espada da Idade do Bronze, o maior cristal cairngorm do mundo & # 8217s, um raro espécime de topázio azul e um pedaço de xadrez tartan usado uma vez por Bonnie Prince Charlie.

Hoje, o castelo é considerado a casa ancestral do clã Farquharson e ainda pertence e é ocupado por eles. As áreas do edifício principal, incluindo as masmorras, estão abertas aos turistas durante todo o ano, e a capela do castelo e a sala de jantar podem ser alugadas para casamentos e pequenos eventos.

O Castelo de Kildrummy é um castelo em ruínas perto de Kildrummy, em Aberdeenshire, na Escócia. Embora em ruínas, é provavelmente o castelo mais extenso da data do século 13 a sobreviver no leste da Escócia, e foi a residência dos Condes de março.

Datado do início do século XIII, acredita-se que o castelo tenha sido construído durante os senhorios de Uilleam e Domhnall, Condes de Mar. Ele foi sitiado várias vezes em sua história, primeiro em defesa da família de Robert the Bruce em 1306, e novamente em 1335 por David de Strathbogie. On this occasion Christina Bruce held off the attackers until her husband Sir Andrew Moray came to her rescue.

In 1374 the castle’s heiress Isobel was seized and married by Alexander Stewart, who then laid claim to Kildrummy and the title of Earl of Mar. In 1435 it was taken over by James I, becoming a royal castle until being granted to Lord Elphinstone in 1507.

The castle passed from the Clan Elphinstone to the Clan Erskine before being abandoned in 1716 following the failure of the Jacobite rebellion.

Kildrummy Castle is “shield-shaped” in plan with a number of independent towers. The flat side of the castle overlooks a steep ravine and on the opposite side of the castle the walls come to a point, which was once defended by a massive twin-towered gatehouse. The castle also had a keep, called the Snow Tower, taller than the other towers, built in the French style, as at Bothwell Castle. Extensive earthworks protected the castle, including a dry moat and the ravine. Most of the castles foundations are now visible, along with most of its lower-storey walls. Archaeological excavations in 1925 uncovered decorative stone flooring and evidence of battles.

Today, the remains of the castle are owned by Historic Scotland. A hotel (the Kildrummy Castle Hotel) has been built on the old estate, overlooking the ruins.

Just outside the village of Glamis, north of Dundee. Glamis is still the family home of the Earls of Strathmore, but is open to the public. Open May to September daily except Sunday

The family home of the Earls of Strathmore since 1372, when Robert II of Scotland gave the castle to Sir John Lyon.
It is the setting for Shakespeare’s Macbeth and is refereed to specifically :- “Glamis thou art” “and yet woulds’t wrongly win: thou’dst have great Glamis” It is popularly believed that Duncan was murdered here by Macbeth
Legends and myths have grown around the castle. King Malcolm II was said to have been murdered here in the 11th century. Lady Janet Douglas, widow of the Earl of Glamis, was burned at the stake as a witch in 1540 by James V. There is said to be a secret room where a nobleman played cards with the devil himself.
Glamis today looks more like a French Chateau than a medieval fortress, because it was extensively restored in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original tower house remains at the centre of the castle today
It has, of course, close connections with the present Royal Family, being the childhood home of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother ( she being the youngest daughter of the 14th Earl), and Princess Margaret was born here in 1930

Brechin Castle stands proud on a massive bluff of rocks above the River Southesk on the site of a much older fortress belonging to the Scottish kings. The present house was last reconstructed in the early1700’s and incorporates parts of the original Castle dating back to the 13th century. The building has evolved from a defensive role to its present great house style.

Brechin Castle is steeped in history. In 1296 Edward I received the submission of John Baliol there and in 1303 Sir Thomas Maule defended the castle against the English for three weeks until his own death brought about its surrender. In 1643 Patrick Maule, 1st Earl of Panmure, bought the whole of the Brechin Property from the Earl of Mar. The Castle was at that time a simple L shaped house of three storeys. It was the 4th Earl of Panmure, married to Margaret daughter of the 3rd Duke of Hamilton, who eventually rebuilt the Castle as it is today.

Lord Dalhousie represents two families who have for many centuries been illustrious in the history of our country, the Maules of Panmure in Angus and the Ramsays of Dalhousie in Midlothian, both families of Norman origin who came to England about the time of the Conqueror, and subsequently obtained grants of land in Scotland.

It was soon after the Abbey of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) was founded by King William the Lion in 1178, that the Maules were established in Panmure and Barry through the marriage of Christian, heiress of Panmure, with Sir Peter Maule.

A crisis in the history of the Family, as in many ennobled Scottish families, occurred after the rebellion of 1715. James, the 4th and last Earl of Panmure in the Scottish Peerage, took part in the rebellion, and died in exile in France. His estates were forfeited, but his wife obtained a long lease of Brechin Castle from the purchasers, the York Buildings Company, and the Earl’s brother, Harry Maule, who also had taken part in the rebellion, was allowed by the Government to return to Scotland from his refuge in Holland, and obtained a lease of Brechin Castle.

Harry Maule’s surviving son, William, was created an Irish Peer in 1743 and took the title the Earl of Panmure but this time in the Irish rather than the Scottish peerage. He bought back the estate from the creditors of the York Buildings Company which had gone into liquidation. He died unmarried in 1782. His eldest sister, Jean Maule had married George, Lord Ramsay, the eldest son of William, 6th Earl of Dalhousie whose home was Dalhousie Castle in Midlothian. It was thus, by this marriage, that the Panmure Estates passed into the Dalhousie Family.

On the death of George, 8th Earl of Dalhousie, his second son, William Ramsay assumed the property, arms and name of Maule of Panmure. As William Maule he was active in politics and in 1831 was granted a peerage of Great Britain, becoming Baron Panmure of Brechin and Navar.

Another notable member of the Family was James Andrew, 10th Earl of Dalhousie, also made Marquis of Dalhousie in recognition of his service as Governor General of India. Having no son he was succeeded by Fox Maule, the son of William Maule as 11th Earl of Dalhousie. Fox Maule was a notable statesman had no sons and, on his death the title passed to George Ramsay, grandson of the 8th Earl, in 1875 following a distinguished career in the Royal Navy in which he served as an Admiral. He died at Dalhousie Castle in July 1880 and was buried in the family vault at Cockpen, Midlothian.


História

Mar Hall &ndash formerly Erskine Mansion &ndash sits amidst 200 acres of the Earl of Mar Estate. The building was designed in the 19th century by Sir Robert Smirke who had previously worked on the British Museum in London. Smirke was commissioned by Major General Robert Walter Stuart, the 11th Lord Blantyre, whose family had purchased the grounds and estate some one hundred years previously. Lord Blantyre &ndasha military man who served in the army with great distinction during the Egyptian and Peninsular wars throughout the 1810&rsquos, and latterly held the title Lord Lieutenant of Renfrewshire, &ndash ultimately never saw his home after meeting his end during the Brussels revolutionary insurrections of 1830, a mere two years after construction had began.

Building began in 1828, where a quarry on the estate provided the stone whilst the oak used throughout was specifically imported from Canada. It was Smirke&rsquos wish that the building resemble the manorial, domestic gothic styles seen during the reign of Queen Elizabeth the First. Construction was not completed until 1845, fifteen years after Lord Blantyre&rsquos death with the final bill coming to over £50,000. (Nearly half a million pounds in today&rsquos money)

The house fell into disrepair over the remainder of the 20th century and it was only in 2004 following a £15million restoration that it was restored to its former glory. 52 lavishly designed bedrooms and suites were designed in addition to retaining as many original features. The rooms proudly sit with breath-taking views over the River Clyde and Old Kilpatrick hills or over our beautiful manicured gardens. May 2010 sees the opening of our new 18hole Earl of Mar Golf Course, designed by David Thomas Jr. and the opening of a new chapter in the Estates proud History.

Mar was one of the seven Pictish Kingdoms, of Ancient Scotland.. Its rulers &ndash originally known as Mormaers, &ndash regional or provincial rulers &ndash became The &lsquoEarls of Mar&rsquo in 1024, making the title the oldest in Great Britain.

A dispute over the succession of the Earldom in the 19th Century caused a schism in the family line which resulted in two holders of the title, a male as well as a female, only one of many interesting facts in the Earldom&rsquos history.

&ndash John Erskine, the 17th Earl of Mar (died 29 October 1572), was the Regent of Scotland and thereafter guardian of King James VI of Scotland. He was one of the leaders in the nobles&rsquo revolt against Mary Queen of Scots, and in addition was part of the government of Scotland during Mary&rsquos imprisonment at Lochleven castle in the 16th Century.

&ndash John Erskine, the 18th Earl of Mar (c. 1558 &ndash 14 December 1634) was a Scottish Politician who, like his father was charged with the guardianship of the young King James VI and thereafter became governor of Edinburgh Castle.

&ndash John Erskine the 23rd Earl of Mar (1675 &ndash May 1732) was a Jacobite supporter at the turn of the 18th Century. However his poor and unconvincing leadership at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715, whilst fighting for Scottish Independence some eight years after the Act of Union had been passed rendered him a slightly unpopular figure.


John Erskine, earl of Mar (1675-1732) - History


John Erskine (1675-1732), 6th Earl of Mar by Godfrey Kneller
© Historic Environment Scotland, Edinburgh

Earl of Mar

John Erskine, who was variously entitled the 6th or 11th Earl of Mar, was one of the leading architects of the 'Act of Union' between Scotland and England in 1707. Alongside the Earl of Loudoun, Mar held the office of Secretary of State, but found himself dismissed in 1709. By 1711, he was already doubting the worth of the union. When Queen Anne died in 1714, Mar was snubbed by the new Hanovarian King, George I. As a result, Mar was quick to join the Jacobite cause.

Heading north from London, he raised the standard at Braemar for the 'Old Pretender', Prince James Francis Edward Stewart and was joined by many landowners from north-east Scotland. James was proclaimed king in his absence at the Mercat Cross in Aberdeen. However, Mar was no soldier and deployed his support poorly. A part of his force moved into England, but was forced to surrender at Preston, Lancashire, while Mar himself met the Duke of Argyll in battle at Sheriffmuir. Technically a stalemate, Mar was the moral loser of this battle because he was forced to withdraw from his position.

James himself now belatedly arrived and was crowned as James VIII at Scone. However, by February 1716, he was on his way back to France with Mar at his side. As a result, the 1715 Rebellion was over before it had hardly started and John Erskine, the Earl of Mar, or 'Bobbing John' as he came to be called, was much ridiculed for his part in its failure and for his ability to change sides.

Nascer: 1675, Alloa
Faleceu: May 1732, France

Nacionalidade: Scottish
Spouse: Lady Frances Pierrepont


John Erskine, 22nd or 6th Earl of Mar by Sir Godfrey Kneller
GAC 0/137 © Crown Copyright, Government Art Collection


John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar (1672-1732), with His Son Thomas, Lord Erskine (1705-1766) by Godfrey Kneller
© The National Trust for Scotland


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Erskine, John (1675-1732)

ERSKINE, JOHN, sixth or eleventh Earl of Mar of the Erskine line (1675–1732), leader of the rebellion of 1715 in behalf of the Pretender, eldest son of Charles, tenth earl of Mar, by his wife, Lady Mary Maule, daughter of the Earl of Panmure, was born at Alloa in February 1675. On account of the fines and sequestrations to which his grandfather had been subjected the eleventh Earl of Mar, on succeeding his father in 1689, found, in the words of the Master of Sinclair, that he had been left heir to ‘more debt than estate’ (Memórias, 59), and according to the same authority his endowments from his mother were of an equally questionable sort, the most noteworthy being the ‘hump he has got on his back, and his dissolute, malicious, meddling spirit’ (ib.) It was almost in the character of a needy suppliant that he joined himself to the Duke of Queensberry and the court party, whose goodwill he deemed it advisable to secure, in view of his questionable proceedings towards his creditors. He took his oaths and seat on 8 Sept. 1696, and on 1 April following was sworn a privy councillor. Subsequently he held the command of the 9th regiment of foot (1702–6), and was invested with the order of the Thistle. He remained a devoted adherent of the court party till the fall of the Duke of Queensberry in 1704, after which he joined in opposing the tactics of the squadrone party, of which the Marquis of Tweeddale was the head, doing so, according to Lockhart, ‘with so much art and dissimulation that he gained the favour of all the tories, and was by many of them esteemed an honest man, and well inclined to the royal family’ (Papéis, i. 114). With the return of the Duke of Queensberry to power in 1705 the tactics of Mar again underwent a change, and determining at least to postpone any purposes he might have cherished of advancing the cause of the Stuarts, he became, as before, one of the most exemplary supporters of the court party. Of his willingness to promote the policy of Queensberry he gave a sufficient pledge by undertaking to bring forward the motion for an act for the treaty of a union between Scotland and England in the parliament of this year, and he was constituted one of the commissioners for that purpose. In reward for such important services he was, after the prorogation of ​ parliament, appointed secretary of state for Scotland, in the room of the Marquis of Annandale, who had manifested a decided lukewarmness towards the proposal. As this office was abolished when effect was given to the act of union, Mar was then appointed keeper of the signet, a pension being also assigned him. He was chosen, 13 Feb. 1707, one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland, and was re-elected in 1708, 1710, and 1713. In 1708 he was also named a privy councillor. Notwithstanding his efforts in bringing about the union, he, from motives not it is probable entirely patriotic, spoke strongly in favour of the motion of Lord Findlater in 1713 for its repeal. The fact that in 1713 he married as his second wife Lady Frances Pierrepoint, second daughter of the Duke of Kingston, and sister of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, has been regarded as an evidence of his desire to strengthen his position with the whigs but as on 13 Sept. of this year he accepted the office of secretary of state under the tories, his marriage cannot be taken as indicating more than that he was ready to go over to the whigs should it again fall to their lot to be in power. It cannot be doubted that with the tories he looked forward to the death of Anne as affording an opportunity for the reinstatement of the exiled dynasty but these designs being baffled by the prompt action of Argyll and Somerset, Mar gracefully bowed to the inevitable, and resolved to place himself as entirely at the service of King George as if no thoughts of another successor to the throne had ever crossed his mind. He wrote a letter to the king, dated 30 Aug., in which, after recounting the services rendered not only by himself to the protestant succession, but by his ancestors to the ancestors of King George ‘for a great tract of years,’ he added, ‘your majesty shall ever find me as faithful and dutiful a subject and servant as ever any of my family have been to the crown, or as I have been to my late mistress the queen’ (Letter, printed with Some Remarks on my Lord's subsequent conduct, by Richard Steele, 1715, and frequently reprinted). In addition to sending to the king this vauntingly loyal offer of his services Mar made it known that he had received a document signed by a large number of the most powerful highland chiefs, in which they desired him to assure the government of ‘their loyalty to his sacred majesty King George.’ Lockhart of Carnwath, who had abundant opportunities of knowing Mar, states that his ‘great talent lay in the cunning management of his designs and projects, in which it was hard to find him out when he desired to be incognito and thus he showed himself to be a man of good sense but bad morals’ (Papéis, i. 114). He was dismissed from office on 24 Sept., but he played the part of the fawning courtier to the very last, and attended a levee at court the evening before his departure to Scotland to place himself at the head of the movement in behalf of the chevalier. After leaving the court on the evening of 1 Aug. he changed his dress, and in the character of a common workman went on board a ship at Gravesend belonging to John Spence, a Leith skipper, and after a passage of about five days landed at Elie in Fife (Deposition of the Earl of Mar's valet, in Original Letters, p. 17). The Master of Sinclair states that he had information of the earl's landing the day afterwards from the Master of Grange (Memórias, 19). From Elie Mar went to the house of Bethune of Balfour, near Markinch (ib.), where a meeting was held of the friends of the cause. On 17 Aug. he passed the Tay with forty horse, and, on his journey northwards to his fortalice at Kildrummy in the Braes of Mar, issued an invitation to those noblemen and chiefs on whom he could rely to attend a meeting on the 27th at Aboyne, ostensibly for the sport of hunting the deer in accordance with a custom ‘among the lords and chiefs of families in the highlands’ ( Patten ). Those who responded to the invitation numbered about eight hundred, representing, with the exception of Argyll, the most influential nobles of the highlands, as well as several lowland nobles and gentlemen. The meeting was addressed by Mar in a speech the cleverness of which is sufficiently attested by its entire success. He frankly confessed that he had committed a great blunder in supporting the union, but stated that his eyes were now open to the fact that by it their ‘ancient liberties were delivered up into the hands of the English, whose power to enslave them further was too great, and their design to do it daily visible’ ( Patten ). By the warlike clans his proposal was received with acclamation, and, after a more private meeting held on 3 Sept., arrangements were completed for putting the design into immediate execution. Having set up the standard of the chevalier on 6 Sept. at Braemar, on a rocky eminence overlooking the Cluny, and proclaimed James VIII king of Scotland, England, France, and Ireland, Mar began his march southwards. On the 9th he issued a declaration, in which he announced that the chevalier had ‘been pleased to instruct me with the direction of his affairs and the command of the forces in this his ancient kingdom of Scotland’ (Collection of Original Letters, p. 15). Accompanied by some neigh ​ bouring chiefs and their followers, he proceeded by the Spittal of Glenshie to Kirkmichael, the other chiefs meanwhile having separated to raise their followers. It would appear that among the persons least disposed to risk themselves in an enterprise under the leadership of Mar were his own tenants and dependents, for in a letter on 9 Sept. to John Forbes, his bailie at Kildrummy, he thus bluntly addresses him: ‘Jocke,—Ye was in the right not to come with the 100 men ye sent up to Night, when I expected four times the Number,’ and he goes on to threaten that ‘if they come not forth with their best arms’ he will, ‘by all that's sacred,’ burn everything that cannot be carried away, let his ‘own loss be what it will, that it may be an example to others’ (published separately, republished in Somers Tracts, iv. 429, and in Patten ). After remaining four or five days at Kirkmichael to wait for reinforcements, Mar resumed his southward movement, and when he reached Dunkeld his forces numbered as many as two thousand ( Patten ). With these he advanced to Perth, which, in accordance with his instructions, had been seized on 16 Sept. by a party of two hundred horse under the command of John Hay, brother of the Earl of Kinnoul, who had thus succeeded in frustrating a similar design on the part of the Earl of Rothes in behalf of King George. Perth was now made the headquarters of the rebels, while Stirling became the rendezvous of the supporters of the government. Perth was the key to the north, just as Stirling was the key to the south. While Stirling remained in the hands of Argyll there was a barrier between Mar and the friends of the chevalier in the south. Mar therefore hit upon the expedient of sending a strong detachment across the Firth of Forth from Fife to make a dash at Edinburgh. The plan was so recklessly rash that its success could only have been momentary, but it was nipped in the bud by the rapid ride of Argyll from Stirling with five hundred troops and the rebels, after various uncertain movements, passed into England to share in the disaster at Preston. In concert with the movement from Fife, Mar made a feint of marching southwards to dispute the passage at Stirling but though this caused the hasty return of Argyll thither, he had already frustrated the attempt on Edinburgh. On learning that Argyll had returned, Mar, after retreating to Auchterarder, again fell back on Perth, where he remained for some time to levy money and afford opportunity for his forces to collect. While at Perth, besides sending a circular on 3 Oct. to the friends of the cause inviting them to advance certain sums on loan, the amount of which he took care definitely to fix, he issued a series of orders for the collection of a land cess, as well as contributions from the principal burghs. By these expedients he was able, as he complacently announced to one of his officers, to place his forces ‘on a regular foot of pay at threepence a day and three loaves, which is full as good as the pay of the soldiers at Stirling.’ The time spent by Mar in these elaborate preparations may be said to have sealed the fate of his enterprise. On 6 Oct. Mar received despatches from France, and also a new commission from the chevalier, given at the court of Bar-le-Duc, 7 Sept., appointing him ‘our general and commander-in-chief of all our forces, both by sea and land, in our ancient kingdom of Scotland.’ It was not, however, till 10 Nov. that he broke up his camp at Perth and marched to Auchterarder, where he was joined by the western clans who had been foiled by the Earl of Islay in their attempt on Inverary. After holding a review, he with characteristic infatuation rested on the following day, and it was not till the 12th that he began his march towards Dunblane, his main division being sent forward to take possession of the town, while he intended, in leisurely fashion, to remain with the rear at Ardoch. Hardly had the march begun, however, when he learned that Argyll had already anticipated him by taking possession of the town. A halt was therefore immediately called, and on the arrival of Mar it was decided that the whole army should concentrate at Kinbuck, where they passed the night under arms. On Sunday morning, 13 Nov., they formed on Sheriffmuir, to the left of the road leading to Dunblane, in full view of Argyll and his staff, whose troops had now advanced beyond Dunblane, but, owing to the configuration of the ground, were partially concealed from Mar and his officers. The forces of Mar numbered about twelve thousand to the four thousand under Argyll and Mar's chance of victory was completely thrown away through the entire absence of common precaution, or even any definite arrangements. He called a council to debate the expediency of risking a battle. The ardent shouts of the chiefs for an instant attack drowned a few faint murmurs for delay. Mar's previous hesitation became transformed into headlong rashness. In fact in the battle of Sheriffmuir Mar cannot be said to have discharged any of the functions of a general he merely headed an attack in haphazard fashion by a brave and powerful force formed of detachments under separate chiefs, against thoroughly disciplined troops. The right wing of the highland ​ army outflanked the left of Argyll's forces, and drove them in headlong flight to Dunblane, but the left was in turn outflanked, and the attack being met with a steady fire of musketry, the highlanders before coming to close quarters wavered and faltered, whereupon Argyll, not permitting them to reform, charged them opportunely with his cavalry, chasing them for a mile and a half over the river Allan. The other portion of Mar's troops were almost as completely disorganised by victory as their comrades were by defeat, and on their return from the pursuit, though flushed with triumph, showed no disposition to renew the conflict. Argyll and Wightman, having chased the rebel left from the field, now found behind them the victorious right posted inactively on the top of the hill of Kippendavie, but, as Wightman explains (Wightman's account of the battle in Patten ), they resolved to put the best face on the matter, and marched straight to the enemy in line of battle. The ruse was quite successful, for Mar kept his ‘front towards the enemy to the north of us, who seemed at first as if they intended to march towards us’ (account by Mar in Patten ). When the troops of Argyll, after coming within half a mile of the enemy, inclined to their left towards Dunblane, ‘the enemy,’ says Wightman, with quiet sarcasm, ‘behaved like civil gentlemen, and let us do what we pleased, so that we passed the Bridge of Dunblain, posted ourselves very securely, and lay on our arms all night.’ Mar withdrew to Ardoch, ‘whither,’ he complacently remarked, ‘we marched in very good order.’ He then fell back on Auchterarder, and as the highlanders began to disperse, the retreat was continued to Perth. By striking coincidences the day of Sheriffmuir saw also the capture of the town and castle of Inverness and the defeat at Preston. Mar now began to sound Argyll as to what terms he would be prepared to make. Argyll was not, however, empowered to treat, and when he made application to the government for an enlargement of his commission no answer was returned. Soon afterwards, on 22 Dec., the chevalier landed at Peterhead, and Mar having met him at Feteresso, and been created duke, accompanied him to the historical village of Scone, whence the chevalier issued several royal proclamations, one of which appointed his coronation to take place on 23 Jan. Mar also sent forth an address in which he described the prince ‘as really the finest gentleman I ever knew,’ and asserted that to have ‘him peaceably settled on his throne is what these kingdoms do not deserve but he deserves it so much that I hope there is a good fate attending him’ ( Patten , p. 76). To delay the march of Argyll northwards, orders were given by Mar on 17 Jan. in name of the king to burn Auchterarder and the other villages in his line of march, and also all corn and forage lest they might be ‘useful to the enemy.’ Such cruel expedients might have been justifiable in a great extremity, but Mar was now merely clutching at straws, without the least hope of being ultimately successful. Even a month before the chevalier landed he had resolved, he states in his ‘Journal,’ to abandon Perth as soon as the enemy marched against it. The orders for the devastation were carried out in the midst of a snowstorm, the cries of the women and children drawing tears from the eyes ‘even of the barbarous highlanders’ (accounts of the burning of the villages Auchterarder, Muthill, &c., in Miscellany of the Maitland Club, iii. 461). The highland chiefs, on learning of Argyll's approach, made every effort to persuade Mar to risk a battle, but in fact many days before this he had made arrangements for retreat and escape as soon as the advance of Argyll should furnish him with an excuse for doing so. When Argyll was at Tullibardine, eight miles from Perth, the city was abandoned by the rebels, the bulk of whom had crossed the Tay on the ice by ten o'clock on the morning of 31 Jan., Mar and the chevalier following in the rear about noon. The retreat, it must be admitted, was conducted with skill as well as expedition. So rapid was it that when Montrose was reached, Argyll was two days' march behind them. On the evening that they arrived there orders were given to the clans to be ready to march at eight in the morning to Aberdeen, where they were told reinforcements were expected to arrive immediately from France but before the march began the chevalier had slipped privately out of the house where he lodged, and joined the Earl of Mar, who accompanied him by a bye-lane to the waterside, where a boat waited to convey them on board a French ship. They were subsequently joined by other leaders, and on 11 Feb. they were landed at Walden, near Gravelines. The clans meanwhile, after reaching Aberdeen under General Gordon, dispersed to their homes.

Mar accompanied the prince to St. Germain, where he busied himself with a variety of intrigues, the chief purpose of which was rather to obtain his own restoration than that of the Stuart family. One of these schemes was to secure the assistance of Charles XII of Sweden, whose favour he recommended the Jacobites in Scotland to procure by a present of oatmeal for his troops. Mar next, through Lockhart, made proposals to his late opponent Argyll, when he supposed the latter to be still ​ writhing with resentment at his dismissal in June 1716 from all his offices but the overtures met with no encouragement. In the following year he entered into communications with Sunderland, offering the assistance of France to George I, to enlarge his German dominions, on condition of his assenting in some form to a Stuart restoration. There is some evidence that George I was not altogether averse to the project, but its inherent absurdity was no doubt at once evident to his advisers. In connection with the project Mar had also had communications with the Earl of Stair, with whom he had formerly been on terms of special intimacy. As he then admitted to Stair that he regarded the affairs of his master as ‘desperate,’ his negotiations would seem to have been entered into rather with the view of commending himself to King George than of aiding the cause of the chevalier. Shortly afterwards he left Paris for Italy, and he had no further communications with Stair till on the return journey in 1719 he stopped at Geneva. On this occasion he openly expressed his anxiety to desert the cause of the chevalier and come to terms with the government (see the documents connected with the negotiation in Hardwicke State Papers, vol. ii.) Stair advanced him a sum of money, and advised that he should be conciliated on the ground that to detach him would ‘break the prince's party.’ Mar's terms for consenting to abstain from any plot against the government were that the family estates should be settled on his son, and that meanwhile until this was done he should be paid a pension of 2,000eu., in addition to 1,500eu. of a jointure to his wife and daughter. It would appear that the Jacobites at St. Germain were quite aware of his negotiations with Stair, but he informed them that he had no intention of fulfilling the conditions, while by pretending to do so he would be able more effectually to aid the cause. It was at Mar's suggestion that the chevalier stirred up the scheme of Atterbury, bishop of Rochester [q. v.], and he appears to have done so simply to demonstrate to the government his willingness to save them by discovering the plot. Not improbably it was through his connivance that his own correspondence with Atterbury was intercepted (see letters in Appendix to Stuart Papers), and at any rate it is almost demonstrable that he was the person who supplied the means of deciphering it. Shortly afterwards, in 1723, he presented a memorial to the regent of France, expounding a project for betraying Britain into the power of France, by dismembering the British empire through an adjustment of the powers of the Scottish and Irish parliaments. His real design in making the proposal was supposed to have been to render the cause of the Jacobites odious to the people of Britain by connecting them with an unpatriotic scheme. Atterbury, after his arrival in France, obtained evidence sufficient to convince him that Mar had been guilty of ‘such base practices’ ‘that the like had scarce been heard of and seemed to be what no man endued with common sense or the least drop of noble blood could perpetrate’ (Lockhart Papers, ii. 142). Atterbury also expressed the general opinion which ultimately prevailed among the Jacobites regarding Mar, that ‘it was impossible for him ever to play a fair game or to mean but one thing at once’ (Stuart Papers, 131). Latterly all his proposals bore on the face of them the marks of charlatanry, and he ceased to possess the power to deceive any one but himself. He prepared a justification of his conduct, of which an abstract is given in ‘Lockhart Papers’ (ii. 175–9), but he failed to convince any one either of his good sense or his sincerity. The prince, however, in a letter to Lockhart expressed his desire that the facts proven against him should rather be concealed than made public, and gave it as his opinion that the ‘less noise made about him the better’ (ib. 198). He was succeeded in the confidence of the prince in 1724 by Colonel Hay, and in 1725 he definitely severed his connection with the Stuarts without, however, thereby securing any benefit from the government. In his retirement he accepted his disappointment more philosophically than could have been predicted, occupying himself chiefly in architectural designs and drawings. In a paper written in 1728 he suggested the improvement of the communications in Edinburgh by proposing the building of bridges north and south of the city. He also suggested the formation of a navigable canal between the Forth and Clyde. He resided in Paris till 1729, when, on account of his health, he removed to Aix-la-Chapelle, where he died in May 1732. He was twice married first to Lady Margaret, daughter of the Earl of Kinnoul, by whom he had two sons, the youngest of whom died in infancy, and the eldest, Thomas, lord Erskine, became commissary of stores for Gibraltar, and afterwards sat in parliament successively for the counties of Stirling and Clackmannan and secondly to Lady Frances Pierrepoint, by whom he had a daughter, Lady Frances, married to her cousin, James Erskine, son of Lord Grange. The second Lady Mar suffered latterly from mental irregularity, and having, like his own wife, quarrelled with Lord Grange [see Erskine, James ], Grange ​ formed a scheme to carry her off somewhat similar to that which led to the disappearance of Lady Grange, but in this case he was frustrated by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The Mar estates were purchased for Thomas, lord Erskine, by Lord Grange. On account of the favour which Gibbs, the architect, received from the Earl of Mar, he left the bulk of his money to Mar's children. The attainder of the earldom of Mar was reversed in 1824. On the failure of male issue in 1866, the earldom, as created in 1565 limited to heirs male, was, after a prolonged argument before the House of Lords, declared on 25 Feb. 1875, to belong to Walter Henry Erskine, earl of Kellie, a decision which nullified the claims put forth for the earldom to be the oldest in the kingdom but on 6 Aug. 1885 the title of Earl of Mar with original precedence as descended from Gratney, earl of Mar (1294), was confirmed to John Francis Erskine Goodeve Erskine, who had married Lady Frances Jemima Erskine, the nearest female heir in the failure in 1866 of male issue.

[Journal of the Earl of Mar, printed by order of the Earl of Mar, in France, republished at London, 1716, and frequently reprinted A Collection of Original Letters and Authentick Papers relating to the Rebellion of 1715, London, 1730 A Full and Authentick Narrative of the Intended Horrid Conspiracy and Invasion, London, 1715 Patten's History of the Rebellion of 1715 Sinclair Memoirs Lockhart Papers Stuart Papers Hardwicke State Papers Macpherson's Original Papers Secret Memoirs of Bar-le Duc, 1716 Macky's Secret Memoirs Swift's Works Jesse's Pretenders and their Adherents Mrs. Thomson's Memoirs of the Jacobites, vol. eu. Lacroix de Marlès' Historie du Chevalier de Saint-Georges, 1876 Burton's Hist. of Scotland Douglas's Scotch Peerage (Wood), ii. 217–9 Chambers's Dict. of Eminent Scotsmen Chambers's Hist. of the Rebellion.]


Assista o vídeo: John Erskine- Kratkotrajna sreča F. Villona (Pode 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Mushicage

    as partes anteriores eram melhores))))

  2. Keshura

    Concordo, ideia muito útil

  3. Rafal

    Eu costumava pensar de maneira diferente, muito obrigado pela ajuda nesta questão.

  4. Maryann

    Não arado

  5. Wahchintonka

    Eu ouvi essa história há cerca de 7 anos.



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