Interessante

Albert Hakim

Albert Hakim


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Albert Hakim nasceu no Irã em 1937. Em 1974 ele fundou a Stanford Technology Corporation em Genebra, Suíça. De acordo com Daniel Sheehan: “Hakim pagou altos funcionários do exército iraniano para ajudar empresas americanas como Hewlett Packard, Motoroloa e General Electric a ganhar contratos multimilionários com o regime do xá”.

Em 1976, contratou o ex-agente da CIA Edwin Wilson para obter acesso e influência em Washington. Stansfield Turner, o diretor da CIA. Ele imediatamente realizou uma investigação sobre as atividades secretas da CIA. Turner acabou descobrindo sobre Ted Shackley e sua “Equipe Secreta”. Ele estava especialmente preocupado com as atividades de Wilson e do Nugan Hand Bank.

Um dos homens que Wilson empregou foi o ex-oficial da CIA Kevin P. Mulcahy. Ele ficou preocupado com as atividades ilegais de Wilson e enviou uma mensagem sobre elas à agência. Ted Shackley foi inicialmente capaz de bloquear qualquer investigação interna de Wilson. No entanto, em abril de 1977, o Washington Post, publicou um artigo sobre as atividades de Wilson afirmando que ele pode estar recebendo apoio de "funcionários atuais da CIA". Stansfield Turner ordenou uma investigação e descobriu que Shackley e Thomas G. Clines tinham um relacionamento próximo com Wilson. Shackley foi chamado para explicar o que estava acontecendo. Sua explicação não foi satisfatória e ficou claro que sua carreira na CIA havia chegado ao fim. Richard Helms teria dito: "Ted (Shackley) é o que chamamos de ameaça quádrupla no negócio dos fantasmas - Drogas, Armas, Dinheiro e Assassinato."

Depois de deixar a CIA em setembro de 1979, Ted Shackley formou sua própria empresa, a Research Associates International, especializada em fornecer inteligência para negócios. Ele também se juntou a Thomas G. Clines, Raphael Quintero e Ricardo Chavez (outro ex-agente da CIA) em outra empresa chamada Distribuidores API. De acordo com David Corn (Fantasma loiro) Edwin Wilson forneceu a Clines "meio milhão de dólares para manter seu império de negócios funcionando". Shackley também trabalhou como freelancer com API, mas achou difícil receber ordens de seu ex-subordinado, Clines. Shackley também criou sua própria empresa, a Research Associates International, especializada em fornecer inteligência para empresas (em outras palavras, ele vendia informações confidenciais dos arquivos da CIA).

Edwin Wilson apresentou Hakim a Ted Shackley e Richard Secord. Em outubro de 1980, Shackley ingressou na empresa de Hakim (ele recebia US $ 5.000 por mês como "analista de risco" em meio período). Hakim estava ansioso para usar os contatos de Shackley para ganhar dinheiro com a Guerra Irã-Iraque, que havia começado no mês anterior.

Em 1983, Hakim e Richard Secord tornaram-se sócios do Stanford Technology Trading Group International em Viena, Virgínia. No ano seguinte, a CIA enviou um memorando secreto ao FBI declarando: "Esta agência tem motivos para acreditar que a empresa de Hakim pode estar associada a atividades de apoio ao terrorismo iraniano em instalações oficiais iranianas em Viena e Barcelona."

Em 1985, Paul Hoven conheceu Carl E. Jenkins, um ex-oficial da CIA, em uma festa para pessoas associadas ao Soldados da fortuna revista. Jenkins apresentou Hoven a Gene Wheaton. Hoven descobriu que Jenkins e Wheaton estavam tentando ganhar contratos federais envolvendo o transporte de mercadorias para o Afeganistão e a Nicarágua. Wheaton contou a Hoven sobre como o governo Ronald Reagan estava envolvido em negócios ilegais de armas. Ele também forneceu informações sobre como a CIA havia sido responsável por uma série de assassinatos políticos.

Hoven apresentou Wheaton e Jenkins a Daniel Sheehan em fevereiro de 1986. Os dois homens contaram a Sheehan sobre um grupo de ex-agentes da CIA e ativos que estavam envolvidos em negócios ilegais de armas com os Contras na Nicarágua e os Mujahideen no Afeganistão. Os nomeados incluíram Albert Hakim, Tom Clines, Raphael Quintero, Ted Shackley, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez e Edwin Wilson. Wheaton e Jenkins também forneceram mais informações sobre assassinatos políticos organizados por membros da CIA.

Em outubro de 1985, dois jornalistas, Tony Avirgan e Martha Honey, acusaram John F. Hull de estar envolvido no atentado de La Penca. Hull responde entrando com uma ação contra Avirgan e Honey por "lesões, falsidade e difamação de caráter". Durante o julgamento, Avirgan e Honey forneceram documentos e testemunhas para apoiar seus comentários sobre Hull. Como resultado, o juiz rejeitou o processo de Hull.

Em um documentário transmitido pela CBS em abril de 1986, um ex-contra-piloto identificou o rancho de Hull como uma "importante planta de transbordo para suprimentos militares e drogas". No mês seguinte, Daniel Sheehan e o Instituto Crístico chamado Albert Hakim, John F. Hull, Ted Shackley, Thomas G. Clines, Richard V. Secord, John K. Singlaub, Robert W. Owen, Rafael Quintero, Adolfo Calero, Pablo Escobar, Jorge Ochoa e outros 18 como figuras importantes de uma rede de extorsão envolvida no tráfico de drogas e de armas.

Em 12 de dezembro de 1986, Daniel Sheehan apresentou ao tribunal uma declaração detalhando o escândalo Irangate. Ele também alegou que Thomas Clines e Ted Shackley estavam executando um programa de assassinato privado que evoluiu de projetos que administravam enquanto trabalhavam para a CIA. Acrescentaram que tudo começou com um programa de treinamento para assassinar exilados cubanos e que o alvo original era Fidel Castro.

Por fim, foi descoberto que o presidente Ronald Reagan havia vendido armas ao Irã. O dinheiro ganho com essas vendas foi usado para apoiar os Contras, um grupo de guerrilheiros engajado em uma insurgência contra o governo socialista sandinista eleito da Nicarágua. Tanto a venda dessas armas quanto o financiamento dos Contras violaram a política do governo e também a legislação aprovada pelo Congresso.

Em março de 1988, Gene Wheaton concordou em fornecer um depoimento em um tribunal federal em Washington. Wheaton alegou que Ted Shackley estava supervisionando uma unidade assassina chamada Fish Farm. No entanto, ele se recusou a dizer qual funcionário aposentado da CIA havia lhe dado essa informação.

Supôs-se que a fonte de Wheaton era Carl E. Jenkins. No entanto, ele negou dizendo: "Estou surpreso que, com base em suas conversas comigo, o Sr. Sheehan teria jurado sob juramento que eu forneci a ele qualquer uma dessas informações."

Em 23 de junho de 1988, o juiz James L. King decidiu que as alegações de Sheehan eram "baseadas em rumores infundados e especulações de fontes não identificadas e sem conhecimento de primeira mão". Em fevereiro de 1989, o juiz King decidiu que Sheenan havia aberto um processo frívolo e ordenou que seu Instituto Cristão pagasse aos réus $ 955.000. Esta foi uma das ordens de sanção mais altas da história e representou quatro vezes o total de ativos do Instituto Crístico.

Lawrence Walsh, o promotor especial no escândalo Iran-Contra, concedeu imunidade de promotor a 14 réus e indiciou seis pessoas. Então, quando George Bush perdeu a eleição em 1992, uma das últimas coisas que ele fez antes de deixar o cargo foi perdoar todas as pessoas que o promotor especial indiciou.

Albert Hakim morreu em 25 de abril de 2003 em Inchon, Coreia do Sul.

1. Sou um advogado devidamente licenciado, admitido para exercer a profissão perante os Tribunais Estaduais e Federais do Estado de Nova York nos Distritos Norte e Sul de Nova York.

2. Estou devidamente licenciado e fui admitido para exercer a profissão perante os Tribunais do Distrito de Columbia, tanto locais como federais, e estou em boa situação perante a Ordem dos Advogados de Nova York e a Ordem dos Advogados do Distrito de Colúmbia.

3. Tenho exercido a advocacia perante os tribunais de Nova York e vários outros estados em nosso país desde 1970, tendo atuado como advogado em cerca de 60 peças separadas de litígios nos estados de Nova York, Pensilvânia, Carolina do Norte, Virgínia, o Distrito de Columbia, Geórgia, Flórida, Oklahoma, Ohio, Colorado, Idaho, Nebraska, Dakota do Sul, Wyoming e Mississippi.

4. Eu me formei na faculdade de Harvard em 1967 como Graduado com Honras no Governo Americano, escrevendo minha Tese de Honra no campo de Direito Constitucional, e fui indicado pela Universidade de Harvard para a Bolsa de Estudos Rhodes de Nova York em 1967. Eu me formei na Harvard School of Law em 1970, tendo atuado como Editor da Harvard Civil Rights) Civil Liberties Law Review e como Pesquisador Associado do Professor Jerome Cohen, Presidente do Departamento de Direito Internacional de Harvard.

5. Enquanto estava na Harvard School of Law, trabalhei como associado de verão no escritório de advocacia de Goodwin, Proctor and Hoar da State Street, sob a supervisão do sócio sênior, Donald J. Hurley, presidente da Câmara de Comércio de Boston e do Senado de Massachusetts Presidente da campanha de John F. Kennedy. Nesta empresa, participei no caso de BAIRD v EISENSTAT, sob Roger Stockey, Conselheiro Geral da Massachusetts Planned Parenthood League (que estabelece a inconstitucionalidade da lei anticoncepcional de Massachusetts) e no caso de Nevada, sob Charles Goodhue, III ( que estabelece o direito constitucional de fiança em casos de extradição criminal, incluindo casos de pena capital). Enquanto estava na Harvard School of Law, escrevi "The Pedestrian Sources of Civil Liberties" na Harvard Civil Rights Civil Liberties Law Review e servi sob o professor Milton Katz, presidente da International Law Association, como presidente do Nigerian Biafran Relief Comissão responsável por negociar com êxito a admissão de voos misericordiosos de alimentos em Biafra em 1968.

6. Enquanto servia como associado jurídico no escritório de advocacia de Wall Street de Cahill, Gordon, Sonnett, Rheindle e Ohio sob o sócio Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines dirigiu o Projeto Phoenix no Vietnã, em 1974 e 1975, que realizou a missão secreta de assassinar membros da burocracia econômica e política dentro do Vietnã para prejudicar a capacidade dessa nação de funcionar após a retirada total dos Estados Unidos do Vietnã. Este Projeto Phoenix, durante sua história, levou a cabo o assassinato político, no Vietnã, de cerca de 60.000 prefeitos, tesoureiros, professores de escolas e outros administradores não vietcongues. Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines financiaram uma fase altamente intensificada do projeto Phoenix, em 1974 e 1975, fazendo com que um intenso fluxo de dinheiro do ópio de Vang Pao fosse secretamente trazido para o Vietnã com esse propósito. Esse dinheiro do ópio Vang Pao foi administrado para Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines por um oficial da Marinha dos EUA baseado no escritório de Operações Navais de Saigon com o nome de Richard Armitage. No entanto, como Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines e Richard Armitage sabiam que seu programa secreto de extermínio anticomunista seria encerrado no Vietnã, Laos, Camboja e Tailândia em um futuro muito próximo, eles, em 1973, iniciaram um processo altamente secreto programa não autorizado pela CIA. Assim, do final de 1973 até abril de 1975, Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines e Richard Armitage desembolsaram, do fundo de ópio Vang Pao, secreto, baseado no Laos, muito mais dinheiro do que o necessário para financiar até mesmo o altamente intensificado Projeto Fênix no Vietnã. O dinheiro excedente ao usado no Vietnã foi secretamente contrabandeado para fora do Vietnã em grandes malas, por Richard Secord e Thomas Clines, e levado para a Austrália, onde foi depositado em uma conta bancária pessoal secreta (acessível de forma privada a Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines e Richard Secord). Durante o mesmo período de tempo entre 1973 e 1975, Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines fizeram com que milhares de toneladas de armas, munições e explosivos dos EUA fossem secretamente retirados do Vietnã e armazenados em um "cache" secreto escondido dentro da Tailândia.

O "oficial de ligação" para Shackley e Clines e o Projeto Phoenix no Vietnã, durante este período de 1973 a 1975, do "Comitê 40" na Casa Branca de Nixon era um certo Eric Von Arbod, secretário de Estado adjunto para Assuntos do Extremo Oriente. Von Arbod compartilhou suas informações sobre o Projeto Fênix diretamente com seu supervisor Henry Kissinger.

Saigon caiu nas mãos dos vietnamitas em abril de 1975. A Guerra do Vietnã acabou. Imediatamente após a conclusão da evacuação do pessoal dos EUA do Vietnã, Richard Armitage foi despachado, por Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines, do Vietnã para Teerã, Irã. No Irã, Armitage, o "tesoureiro" do dinheiro do ópio Vang Pao para o planejado programa de operações secretas "Equipe Secreta" de Shackley e Clines, entre maio e agosto de 1975, estabeleceu um "canal financeiro" secreto dentro do Irã, em cujo segredo Os fundos para drogas de Vang Pao poderiam ser depositados no Sudeste Asiático. O objetivo deste conduíte era servir como o veículo para o financiamento secreto da "Equipe Secreta" de Shackley, de operações "Negras" privadas, não autorizadas pela CIA dentro do Irã, dispostas a procurar, identificar e assassinar simpatizantes socialistas e comunistas, que foram vistos por Shackley e seus membros da "Equipe Secreta" como "terroristas em potencial" contra o Xá do governo iraniano. No final de 1975 e no início de 1976, Theodore Shackley e Thomas Clines contrataram Edwin Wilson para viajar a Teerã, no Irã, para chefiar o programa secreto de assassinato "antiterrorista" da "Equipe Secreta". Esta não foi uma operação autorizada pelo governo dos EUA. Esta foi uma operação privada supervisionada, dirigida e participada por Shackley, Clines, Secord e Armitage em suas capacidades puramente privadas.

No final de 1975, Richard Armitage assumiu o cargo de "Consultor Especial" do Departamento de Defesa dos EUA em relação a militares americanos desaparecidos em ação (MIAs) no sudeste da Ásia. Nesta qualidade, Armitage foi colocado na Embaixada dos Estados Unidos em Bangkok, Tailândia. Lá, Armitage era o principal responsável pela localização e recuperação de MIAs americanos no sudeste da Ásia. Ele trabalhou na Embaixada com um associado, um tal Jerry O. Daniels. De 1975 a 1977, Armitage ocupou este cargo na Tailândia. No entanto, ele não exerceu as funções deste cargo. Em vez disso, Armitage continuou a funcionar como o "tesoureiro" da "Equipe Secreta" de Theodore Shackley, cuidando para que os fundos secretos do ópio Vang Pao fossem conduzidos do Laos, através de Armitage na Tailândia para Teerã e a conta bancária secreta de Shackley na Austrália no Nugen-Hand Bank. O dinheiro conduzido por Armitage a Teerã era para financiar a operação secreta antiterrorista de "busca e destruição" de Edwin Wilson em nome de Theodore Shackely. Armitage também dedicou uma parte do seu tempo entre 1975 e 1977, em Bangkok, facilitando a fuga do Laos, Camboja e Tailândia e a realocação em outras partes do mundo de vários membros do grupo secreto de tribos Meo que haviam executado o programa secreto de assassinato político por Theodore Shackley no Sudeste Asiático entre 1966 e 1975. Ajudando Richard Armitage nesta operação estava Jerry O. Na verdade, Jerry O. Daniels era um "bag-man" para Richard Armitage, auxiliando Armitage transportando fisicamente para fora da Tailândia milhões de dólares de O dinheiro secreto do ópio de Vang Pao para financiar a realocação dos membros da tribo Meo de Theodore Shackley e fornecer fundos para as operações do "Time Secreto" de Theodore Shackley. Na Embaixada dos Estados Unidos em Bangkok, Richard Armitage também supervisionou a remoção de armas, munições e explosivos do esconderijo secreto de munições da Shackley / Clines escondido dentro da Tailândia entre 1973 e 1975, para uso pela "Equipe Secreta" de Shackley. Ajudando Armitage nessas últimas operações estava um certo Daniel Arnold, chefe da estação da CIA na Tailândia, que se juntou à "equipe secreta" de Shackley em sua capacidade puramente privada.

Um dos oficiais da Embaixada dos Estados Unidos na Tailândia, um certo Abranowitz, soube do envolvimento de Armitage no manuseio secreto dos fundos de ópio de Vang Pao e fez com que fossem iniciadas investigações internas de contrabando de heroína do Departamento de Estado dirigidas contra Richard Armitage. Armitage foi alvo de queixas do pessoal da Embaixada no sentido de que ele estava totalmente falhando no desempenho de suas funções em nome de MIAs americanos, e ele relutantemente renunciou ao cargo de D.O.D. Consultor Especial em MIAs no final de 1977.

De 1977 a 1979, Armitage permaneceu em Bangkok abrindo e operando uma empresa chamada The Far East Trading Company. Esta empresa tinha escritórios apenas em Bangkok e em Washington, DC Esta empresa foi, de fato, de 1977 a 1979, apenas uma "fachada" para as operações secretas de Armitage conduzindo dinheiro do ópio de Vang Pao do Sudeste Asiático para Teerã e o Banco Nugen-Hand na Austrália, para financiar o programa de assassinatos "antiterrorista" anticomunista e de extrema direita e a operação de "guerra não convencional" da "Equipe Secreta" de Theodore Shackley e Thomas Cline. Durante este período, entre 1975 e 1979, em Bangkok, Richard Armitage viveu na casa de Hynnie Aderholdt, o ex-Comandante da Aeronáutica do "Grupo de Operações Especiais" de Shackley no Laos, que, entre 1966 e 1968, serviu como o superior imediato a Richard Secord, o Vice-Comandante da Ala Aérea do MAG SOG. Secord, em 1975, foi transferido do Vietnã para Teerã, Irã.

Em 1976, Richard Secord mudou-se para Teerã, Irã, e tornou-se secretário adjunto de defesa no Irã, encarregado da Divisão do Oriente Médio da Administração de Assistência e Segurança de Defesa. Nessa função, Secord atuou como chefe de operações do Departamento de Defesa dos EUA no Oriente Médio, encarregado das vendas militares estrangeiras de aeronaves, armas e equipamentos militares dos EUA para nações do Oriente Médio aliadas ao superior imediato do Secord dos EUA era Eric Van Marbad, o ex-oficial de ligação dos 40 Comitês para o programa Phoenix de Theodore Shackley no Vietnã de 1973 a 1975.

De 1976 a 1979, no Irã, Richard Secord supervisionou a venda de aeronaves e armas militares dos EUA para nações do Oriente Médio. No entanto, Richard Secord não autorizou vendas diretas de nação para nação de tais equipamentos diretamente do governo dos EUA para os referidos governos do Oriente Médio. Em vez disso, Richard Secord conduziu essas vendas por meio de um "intermediário", um tal Albert Hakim. Com o uso do intermediário Albert Hakim, o subsecretário assistente de defesa Richard Secord comprou aeronaves militares e armas do governo dos Estados Unidos a um baixo "custo de fabricante", mas vendeu essas aeronaves e armas aos países clientes do Oriente Médio por muito maior "custo de reposição". A Secord então fez com que fosse pago ao governo dos Estados Unidos, a partir do preço de venda real obtido, apenas o valor inferior igual ao custo do fabricante. A diferença foi escondida do governo dos EUA e Secord e Albert Hakim transferiram secretamente esses milhões de dólares para as operações da "Equipe Secreta" de Shackley dentro do Irã e para a conta bancária secreta de Shackley Nugen-Hand na Austrália. Assim, em 1976, o Réu Albert Hakim tornou-se parceiro de Thomas Clines, Richard Secord e Richard Armitage na "Equipe Secreta" de Theodore Shackley.

Entre 1976 e 1979, Shackley, Clines, Secord, Hakim, Wilson e Armitage criaram várias corporações e subsidiárias em todo o mundo para ocultar as operações da "Equipe Secreta". Muitas dessas empresas foram estabelecidas na Suíça. Algumas delas são: (1) Lake Resources, Inc .; (2) The Stanford Technology Trading Group, Inc .; e (3) Companie de Services Fiduciaria. Outras sociedades foram constituídas na América Central, tais como: (4) CSF Investments, Ltd. e (5) Udall research Corporation. Alguns foram criados nos Estados Unidos por Edwin Wilson. Alguns deles foram: (6) Orca Supply Company na Flórida e (7) Consultants International em Washington, DC Por meio dessas corporações, membros da "Equipe Secreta" de Theodore Shackley lavaram centenas de milhões de dólares de dinheiro secreto do ópio Vang Pao, roubado no exterior As vendas militares prosseguem entre 1976 e 1979. Nomeado neste processo civil federal para ser colocado sob juramento e questionado sobre sua participação no "empreendimento" criminoso alegado nesta Reclamação é probatório da culpa criminal dos Réus por alguns dos crimes acusados ​​em esta reclamação.

Os Requerentes e o Advogado dos Requerentes, The Christic Institute, possuem evidências que constituem a "causa provável" de que cada um dos Réus mencionados nesta Queixa é culpado da conduta acusada.

Se mais evidências detalhadas forem exigidas pelo Tribunal para permitir que os Requerentes iniciem o processo padrão de descoberta neste caso, a falha em colocá-la nesta Declaração juramentada é função do curto período de tempo permitido pelo Tribunal para a preparação deste depósito, não é porque os Requerentes carecem de tais evidências.

Sheehan e Wheaton sentaram-se na cozinha da casa de Hoven no início de fevereiro de 1986. Foi mágico. Para um Sheehan de olhos arregalados, Wheaton, fingindo ser um operador experiente, contou histórias malucas de operações clandestinas e dezenas de nomes: Wilson, Secord, Clines, Hakim, Singlaub, Bush. Uma tripulação inteira estava louca, apoiando Contras, conduzindo atividades secretas em outro lugar. Drogas estavam envolvidas. Parte dessa gangue havia se envolvido em negócios corruptos do governo no Irã e no sudeste da Ásia. Agora, os mesmos meninos estavam levando armas para a América Latina. No centro de toda a história estava um ex-oficial da CIA chamado Ted Shackley. Sheehan estava cativado. Ele havia atingido o veio principal.

Sheehan falou algumas vezes com Carl Jenkins. Em uma sessão, Sheehan ouviu Jenkins e Wheaton discutir o que Wheaton estava chamando de "gangue fora da reserva" - Secord, Clines, Hakim e Shackley - e as operações que administravam dentro e fora do governo. De acordo com Hoven, Wheaton e Jenkins queriam que as informações sobre essa multidão se tornassem públicas e viam Sheehan como o mecanismo de divulgação.

Wheaton e Jenkins não disseram a Sheehan que esperavam acertar as contas com uma banda que acreditavam ter um bloqueio injusto nos contratos de fornecimento de ar que desejavam. Mas para Hoven estava claro que uma facção de fantasmas estava matando outra. Hoven não tinha certeza de quem estava de que lado. Ele adivinhou que alguém em algum lugar - talvez até na própria Agência - estava chateado com os freelancers e queria vê-los controlados. Mas se Jenkins ou qualquer outra pessoa pensasse que poderia usar Sheehan como um transmissor silencioso de informações prejudiciais, eles estavam tão errados quanto eles poderiam ser.

Durante o inverno e a primavera, enquanto Sheehan falava com Wheaton e Jenkins, ele tinha outra coisa em mente: um atentado de dois anos na Nicarágua. Em 30 de maio de 1984, uma bomba explodiu em uma entrevista coletiva em La Penca, Nicarágua, realizada por Eden Pastora, um líder independente dos Contra que resistiu em cooperar com a CIA e a principal força dos Contra. Várias pessoas foram mortas, mas não Pastora. Depois disso, Tony Avirgan, um jornalista americano que foi ferido por estilhaços em La Penca, e sua esposa, Martha Honey, começaram a descobrir quem havia planejado o ataque. Um ano depois, eles produziram um livro que acusava um pequeno grupo de exilados americanos e cubanos - alguns com ligações com a CIA e os Contras - de planejar o ataque assassino. Uma das pessoas que eles apontaram foi John Hull, um apoiador do Contra com uma propagação no norte da Costa Rica e um relacionamento com North e a CIA. O relatório deles notou que alguns apoiadores dos Contra estavam trabalhando clandestinamente no comércio de drogas.

Hull processou o casal por difamação na Costa Rica. Ele exigiu $ 1 milhão. Avirgan e Honey, que moravam em San Jose, receberam ameaças de morte. Eles consideraram retaliar entrando com uma ação nos Estados Unidos contra indivíduos da rede secreta de apoio Contra. Mas eles não conseguiram encontrar nenhum advogado para cuidar de um caso tão difícil. Eventualmente, Sheehan foi recomendado a eles. Eles o examinaram. Os relatórios foram mistos. Mas ele tinha um atributo positivo inegável: ele aceitaria o caso. O casal o contratou.

No final da primavera de 1986, Sheehan estava se misturando com fantasmas na área de Washington e ponderando como abrir um processo para Avirgan e Honey. Ele coletou informações sobre a operação Contra. Ele se aproximou de Wheaton, que contava uma nova história toda vez que se encontrava. Então Sheehan fez uma peregrinação para encontrar o anjo negro da multidão secreta: Ed Wilson.

O oficial desonesto preso fez a cabeça de Sheehan girar. A essência da história de Wilson, Sheehan afirmou, era que a Agência em 1976 havia criado uma unidade antiterrorista altamente secreta baseada nas PRUs do Vietnã e administrado essa entidade separada da burocracia principal. A missão: conduzir "operações molhadas" (conversa de espiões para assassinatos). Após a eleição de Jimmy Carter, esse grupo foi apagado dos livros e escondido em empresas privadas, e Shackley era o homem encarregado da unidade dentro e fora do governo. O programa foi dividido em diferentes componentes. O homem da CIA, William Buckley, supostamente dirigira um para fora do México com Quintero e Ricardo Chávez. Outra unidade era chefiada por um ex-oficial do Mossad. Felix Rodriguez estava envolvido em mais um no Oriente Médio. Sheehan acreditou na palavra de Wilson. “Wilson entrou em tais detalhes,” Sheehan mais tarde sustentou. "Não é algo que está sendo inventado."

A certa altura, depois que Sheehan se encontrou com Wilson, ele se deu conta: tudo estava conectado. O bombardeio de La Penca, a rede North-Contra, a gangue Wilson, todos aqueles exilados cubanos treinados pela CIA, toda a história dos truques sujos da Agência, as operações contra Fidel, a guerra no Laos, o lado horripilante da Guerra do Vietnã, ação da Agência clandestina no Irã. Foi uma conspiração contínua. Não importava se esses caras estavam dentro ou fora do governo. Era um governo vil dentro de um governo, uma trama que existia por décadas, uma empresa criminosa permanente. Sheehan tinha uma teoria sustentada unificada da história secreta dos EUA. E Shackley era o malvado professor Moriarty, o homem que puxava todos os cordões. O vingativo Sheehan agora estava determinado a derrubar Shackley.

Sheehan fundiu o caso do atentado de La Penca ao seu Wheaton - investigação influenciada pela rede de velhos amigos. Avirgan e Honey compartilharam com ele todas as informações que desenvolveram cuidadosamente sobre a operação de suporte Contra. Os nomes e histórias que ele jogou neles - incluindo os de Shackley - eram desconhecidos. Eles acreditaram que Sheehan sabia o que estava fazendo quando combinou os resultados de sua investigação profissional com as informações coletadas de Wheaton, Wilson e outros. “Vimos John Hull como o centro, e Sheehan o viu como Shackley”, lembrou Honey. "Shackley era o ingrediente principal. Não sei por que Danny se fixou nele. Ele nos disse que tinha muitas informações sobre o envolvimento de Shackley em La Penca. Era b.s. Mas o que sabemos, sentado na Costa Rica?" Sheehan estava procurando um caso que pudesse representar para um grande público. Ele disse várias vezes a Avirgan e Honey que o público não se importava com La Penca. Mas as pessoas prestariam atenção se o inimigo fosse uma grande conspiração encabeçada por uma figura covarde.

Sheehan aplicou os recursos de seu pequeno Instituto Crístico ao caso. Wheaton continuou investigando a multidão de Wilson e outros tipos secretos. Ele começou a dizer a Jenkins que acreditava estar perseguindo uma unidade de assassinos ultrassecreta de décadas. Wheaton afirmou que começou com um programa de treinamento de assassinato para exilados cubanos que Shackley havia estabelecido no início dos anos 1960. O alvo era Castro. A guerra secreta contra Cuba acabou, mas a "Equipe de Atiradores" continuou. Ela se expandiu e agora era chamada de Fazenda de Peixes, e Shackley permaneceu como seu chefe.

Sheehan juntou toda essa fofoca assustadora e desinformação com alguns fatos concretos e, em 29 de maio de 1986, ele largou o fardo. Em um tribunal federal de Miami, Sheehan moveu uma ação contra trinta indivíduos, invocando a lei antiracketeering RICO e acusando todos de fazerem parte de uma conspiração criminosa que treinou, financiou e armou mercenários cubano-americanos na Nicarágua, contrabandearam drogas e violaram a Lei de Neutralidade ao apoiar os Contras, negociou várias armas e bombardeou a coletiva de imprensa em La Penca. Os demandantes de Sheehan eram os jornalistas Tony Avirgan e Martha Honey. Os conspiradores eram distantes: John Hull na Costa Rica; Exilados cubanos baseados em Miami (incluindo Quintero); os chefões da droga Pablo Escobar e Jorge Ochoa na Colômbia; traficantes de armas na Flórida; Contra o líder Adolfo Calero; um mercenário do Alabama chamado Tom Posey; Robert Owen, um assessor secreto do Norte; o homem-bomba desconhecido em La Penca; e Singlaub, Hakim, Secord, Clines e Shackley. Sheehan alegou que Shackley vendeu armas ilegalmente, planejou matar Pastora e (com Secord, Clines e Hakim) aceitou dinheiro da venda de drogas para embarques de armas. Sheehan exigiu mais de US $ 23 milhões em danos.

Com este processo, Sheehan acreditava, ele poderia quebrar a operação de suporte do Contra e lançar na luz personagens sombrios que estavam tramando travessuras por anos. Sheehan e Wheaton encontraram alguns jogadores reais e algumas operações reais. Mas ambos possuíam imaginações hiperativas, e qualquer verdade que eles descobriram, eles se transformaram em uma conspiração cósmica falsa.

O processo, elaborado de maneira descuidada por Sheehan, surpreendeu Shackley e seus colegas réus. Hoven e Jenkins ficaram pasmos. Nenhum dos dois esperava que Sheehan produzisse tal tempestade. Sheehan claramente estava nisso por política e ego. Ele não pretendia ser um disseminador silencioso de informações. "Fiquei com a suposição", observou Hoven, "de que fui criado para passar informações para Sheehan. Mas eles" - quem quer que fossem - "estragaram tudo porque Sheehan não estava interpretando perto do roteiro."

O John F. Kennedy - liberal John F. Kennedy School - disse que, "Desde que George Washington advertiu seu país contra complicações estrangeiras, o império no exterior tem sido visto como uma tentação permanente da América, mas também seu inimigo potencial." império "poderia descrever a coisa incrível em que a América está se tornando agora? É a única nação que policia o mundo por meio de cinco comandos militares globais, mantém mais de um milhão de homens em armas em quatro continentes, posiciona grupos de batalha de porta-aviões em cada um de nossos oceanos do planeta, garante a sobrevivência de países de Israel à Coreia do Sul, impulsiona as rodas do comércio global e enche os corações e mentes de todo o nosso planeta com seus desejos.

O aviso de John Quincy Adams em 1821 agora se torna severo e pertinente. Ele disse: 'Se a América algum dia fosse tentada a se tornar a ditadora do mundo, ela certamente não seria mais a governante de seu próprio espírito'. Pois o que o império esbanja no exterior não pode ser gasto na manutenção do governo republicano em casa: em hospitais ou estradas ou escolas. Orçamentos militares dilatados apenas agravam o fracasso contínuo da América em manter sua promessa igualitária para si mesma e para o mundo, e esses são apenas alguns dos custos do império.

Outros custos são a detenção de cidadãos americanos sem acusação ou acesso a aconselhamento jurídico em brigs militares; aprisionar combatentes estrangeiros em prisões insulares, em um limbo legal; manter estrangeiros legais, e até mesmo cidadãos americanos, sob vigilância permanente e ilegal em casa, enquanto deporta alguns estrangeiros após apenas audiências secretas. Estas não são ações de uma república que vive pelo Estado de Direito ou de sua Constituição, mas de um poder imperial que de fato desconfia de suas próprias liberdades.

And he goes on in this vein for several pages, actually, predictably critiquing this extremely conservative foreign policy of the Bush administration and pointing out that on September 11, he said, “was a rude awakening, a moment of reckoning with the avenging hatred which this imperial policy raises around the world. American citizens may not have thought of the Twin Trade Towers and the U.S. Pentagon as symbolic headquarters of a world empire, but numberless millions across the world do. And these men and women cheered the men with box cutters and their propagandistic deed of September 11.

And this goes on in this vein - and this is, I guess, only to be expected from the liberal John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. But surprisingly enough, rather than continue in the article by condemning this totally conservative foreign policy on the part of the new Bush administration and setting forth a clear, liberal alternative, what in fact Professor Ignatieff does - and it comes from recognizing, which I hadn’t recognized to begin with, that the name of the article is not simply, “The American Empire.” It is, “The American Empire: Get Used to It.”

For he goes on - rather than setting forth a clear alternative policy - to point out, saying, “Why should such a republic ever take on the risk of becoming an empire? Doesn’t this run the chance of endangering its identity as a free people? The problem is,” he says, “that this question implies the existence of innocent options, which in the case of Iraq do not exist. Iraq is not just a question about whether the United States can retain its republican virtue in a wicked world, for virtuous disengagement is no longer a possibility. Since September 11, the question has now become whether our republic can possibly survive in safety without imperial policing abroad.”

He said, “Containment, rather than a war, would be the better course. But the Bush administration has concluded that containment has now reached its limits. And this conclusion is not unreasonable.” He says that, “The possession of weapons of mass destruction by Saddam Hussein - for this would render him the master of the region which contains so much of the world’s oil resources that it makes that region what a military strategist might call ‘the center of gravity of any intended empire.”

And he goes on in this vein to point out that what his real criticism of this conservative imperial policy is that it simply does not adequately share the policing power of the New Imperium with our European allies in our allied field. He also points out that in fact the other criticism of this is it does not adequately link together the massive bombing - “the upcoming bombing,” as he refers to it - of Iraq with, in fact, an adequate policy to bring peace to the entire Middle East. He said that just bombing Iraq and removing Saddam Hussein doesn’t really ensure the establishment of a democratic set of institutions in Iraq, and so therefore he criticizes the policies of the administration by not going far enough in being an imperial power.

In addition to simply bombing Iraq and removing Saddam Hussein, he said, “we must get into building an entire culture in Iraq that is predicated upon democratic principles and free-market principles” - and if we’re going to do this, then of course, he says, we have to open a dialogue with Iran, the next-door neighbor, so it won’t feel threatened by the existence of a democratic republic in its next-door neighbor. And then, of course, we’re going to have to convince the Saudis, the House of Saud, that they will have to begin to import more democratic institutions. And in fact we’re going to have to convince the Kuwaiti royal family that they would have to do something similar. And of course we’re going to have to assure the Turks that in fact we’re not going to support the Kurds in establishing a free homeland, and we’re going to have to persuade the Kurds not to continue to demand a free homeland.

And so what he says is that, The real question isn’t whether the United States is becoming too powerful. The question is - from the perspective of the liberal critique - “are we becoming powerful enough to actually successfully assert the full powers of empire,” which he recommends we prepare to do.


There are 1 census records available for the last name Al Hakim. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Al Hakim census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 7 immigration records available for the last name Al Hakim. As listas de passageiros são o seu bilhete para saber quando seus ancestrais chegaram aos EUA e como eles fizeram a viagem - do nome do navio aos portos de chegada e partida.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Al Hakim. For the veterans among your Al Hakim ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 1 census records available for the last name Al Hakim. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Al Hakim census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 7 immigration records available for the last name Al Hakim. As listas de passageiros são o seu bilhete para saber quando seus ancestrais chegaram aos EUA e como eles fizeram a viagem - do nome do navio aos portos de chegada e partida.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Al Hakim. For the veterans among your Al Hakim ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


4 Einstein Flunked Math

Motivational speakers love to tell this tale, inspiring underachievers with the story of this German kid who was just like you! Despite his sincerest efforts he could never manage to do well in his math exams, and struggled desperately with physics while working as a lowly patent clerk.

That muddled kid grew up to be Albert Fucking Einstein! And if he can do it, then so can you!

Well, no you can't. As it turns out, Einstein was a mathematical prodigy, and before he was 12, he was already better at arithmetic and calculus than you are now. Einstein was in fact so fucking smart that he believed school was holding him back, and his parents purchased advanced textbooks for him to study from. Not only did he pass math with flying colors, it's entirely possible that he was actually teaching the class by the end of semester.

The idea that Einstein did badly at school is thought to have originated with a a 1935 Ripley's Believe it or Not! trivia column.

There's actually a good reason why it's a bad idea to include Robert Ripley among the references in your advanced university thesis. The famous bizarre trivia "expert" never cited his sources, and the various "facts" he presented throughout his career were an amalgamation of things he thought he read somewhere, heard from somebody, or pulled out of his ass. The feature's title probably should have been: Believe it or Not! I Get Paid Either Way, Assholes.

When he was first shown this supposed expose of his early life, Einstein allegedly just laughed, and probably went on to solve another 12 mysteries of quantum physics before dinner. By the time he finally kicked the bucket in 1955, it's entirely possible that "failure" was the one concept that Albert Einstein had never managed to master.

Of course, this just reaffirms what we have always suspected, deep down: success really is decided at birth, and your life will never be better than it is right now. Sorry about that.

Related: Brilliant Is Making Math and Science Easier For The Rest Of Us


By FSTC Published on: 27th April 2005

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Al Hakim Mosque is the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt. The articles provides an elaborate account of the Fatimids contribution to its rich architectural design.

Figura 1. Plan of Al-Hakim Mosque showing the five aisled prayer hall and porticoes resembling the Al-Azhar Mosque. Fonte: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148)

Al-Hakim Mosque was built following the tradition established by the Ibn Tulun and Al-Azhar mosques. It emulated the building forms and techniques of the former and the spatial configuration of the latter. The mosque’s history and magnitude made it the second major Fatimid Mosque and the fourth most important religious edifice in Egypt after the mosques of Amr, Ibn Tulun and Al-Azhar.

Introdução

The reign of the Fatimids was somewhat controversial. The succession of this dynasty to the Caliphate has been accomplished on the ruins of the Abbasid state, a period which saw much of the Muslim civilization’s glories and progress. The Fatimids are also accused of being too soft with Crusaders, in some instances accused of collaborating with them to end the Seljuk rule in the Levant. Whatever their political motives and dealings were, the Fatimids left a considerable architectural and artistic heritage highly admired by historians and collectors.

This brief article assesses the Fatimid architectural contribution in Al-Hakim Mosque which was built between 990 and 1012. Although started by Caliph Al-Aziz in 990, the mosque, as referred to in the name, was completed by Al-Hakim Bi Amrillah (the ruler by the orders of God) who ruled between 996-1021 inheriting the throne from his father al-Aziz (975-996) and grandfather, Caliph Muizz (953-75). However, unlike his predecessors, he was accused of brutality, torture and assassination of his rivals and in turn, he was himself assassinated.

Architecture of the Mosque

Originally built outside Cairo’s northern wall, the mosque was incorporated within the city in 1087 transforming its own northern wall and minarets into an integral part of the fortifications. Al-Hakim, or more precisely Al-Aziz, reused the plan of Al-Azhar mosque with a five aisled prayer hall (sanctuary) and arcaded porticoes. The central nave in front of the mihrab was enlarged and raised higher above the roof accentuating its importance and it was pierced with clerestory windows as at Al Aqsa in Jerusalem. The mihrab itself was defined by a semi-circular dome raised on squinches and standing at the centre of two corner domes of similar design. The trio were clearly introduced to emphasize the Qibla wall. Historic sources indicate that Al-Azhar, built two decades earlier, had similar arrangement with three domes on the Qibla wall. Rivoira who studied the dome of the mihrab concluded that it has retained its original form although there were traces of later restoration work, mainly brick work undertaken during the restoration carried out by Baybars in 1304. However, Rivoira probably went too far in suggesting that the dome form and character was derived from a Roman Sicilian tradition as having “typically Ravennate pendentives”, a reference to the church of Ravenna.

Figura 2. General view of the prayer hall showing the raised central nave of the
mihrab and one of the corner domes. Fonte: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148

The influence of Ibn Tulun Mosque can also be felt in many architectural elements of the Al-Hakim Mosque. The arches supporting the arcades of the sanctuary (prayer hall) as well as the portico were built pointed in Tulunid fashion on robust masonry piers with engaged columns at the corners.

In relation to the original features introduced by the mosque, one can refer to the distinguished façade and its two corner minarets. To create a balance with the apposing sanctuary end, Al-Hakim ordered in 1003 the construction of a monumental façade at the north western end of the courtyard. The centre of this façade was pierced with an imposing masonry gateway of tripartite design unfamiliar in Egypt at that time, but greatly resembling the entrance portal of the Great Mosque of Mahdiya (Tunisia, 916 CE), the first Fatimid capital. These features had considerable impact on the evolution of façade architecture in Egypt, especially on Cairene streets.

Figura 3. Corner of Al-Hakim mosque showing the northern minaret in its encasement as well as the ablution fountain. Fonte: M. Hattstein and P. Delius (eds.) (2000), ‘Islam Art and Architecture’, Konemann, Cologne,p.148

Further influence of the monumentalisation of this entrance is connected to the rise of the highly emphasised portal entrances of the 11 th and 12 th century Romanesque gateways. It is true that the Romans used mainly monumental arches for the celebration of particular victories but they did not attach them to buildings. Furthermore, it has been established beyond doubt that the example of Mahdiya to be indeed the first recorded prototype of such entrances. With their close connections with the Normans in Sicily, the Fatimids played an important role in the transmission of many Muslim architectural themes and techniques to Europe including the use of porches at entrances.

The other original feature of the mosque consists of the two minarets, which despite the newly added sections they represent the oldest surviving examples of the Fatimid period, both raised high at the corners of the north western wall but of differing designs. The minaret of the western corner was erected first on a square substructure changing later into an octagon above the height of the surrounding walls. The minaret of the northern corner was built cylindrical on a square base, contrasting with the rectilinear nature of the rest of the building. In an attempt to address this problem it was decided, in 1010, to build a square salient around the minarets to conceal the imbalance. Another encasement was built around the northern minaret in 1087 when the mosque was incorporated into the city’s boundary. Unfortunately the top sections of these minarets were partly destroyed in an earthquake in 1303 which wrecked the area as well as causing great damage to the mosque. The present heavily corbelled and scalloped towers, which rise out of the heart of the two square salients, belong to the renovation work undertaken after the earthquake by the great Mamluk leader Baybars in 1304. The restoration also extended to a few aisles of the prayer hall which regretfully replaced original damaged pointed arches with horseshoe ones, a feature which destroyed some of the rhythm of these aisles. Many of the remaining parts of the mosque still retain much of their original character sections of the prayer hall with their piers and arches, for example, as well as the mihrab dome survived almost intact. The walls still retain many of their original features and the entrance and minarets much of their bas-relief floriated Kufic friezes, interlineated upended plaques and decorated string course mouldings.

The mosque courtyard or Sahn is a large open area surrounded by a covered arcade (porticoes), three riwaqs deep except from the north western side which is only two riwaqs wide. The boundary walls around the courtyard and on the exterior are surmounted by battlements, a feature which was first introduced to Egypt in Ibn Tulun Mosque and later re-employed in Al-Azhar. This is another motif that was transmitted to Europe, most probably through the influence of mosques of Ibn Tulun, Al-Azhar and Al-Hakim mosques. An example of this is the architect of Palermo Cathedral, built in 1185 CE, who seems to have been so impressed with these battlements that he employed them in the cathedral.


Joy Hakim Puts the 'Story' in US History

DENVER, COLORADO - A good journalist becomes good by learning to weave complicated ideas and simple facts into a compelling narrative that can inform, sometimes without the reader even knowing it's happening.

Joy Hakim is a good journalist, and that's why she decided to write textbooks.

Textbooks! Only the words "Pop Quiz" strike more dread into a student's heart. They are those thick, often boring, dusty tomes that students must slog through during class and for homework. They are almost universally despised for their ability to make even the most interesting topics read like a legal contract.

But the thing is, there is compelling stuff in those bulky science and history books. Ideas that can spark careers and dreams.

And that's what Hakim wants to get at.

Three decades ago, a newspaper asked her to cover a meeting about the poor quality of school textbooks. “I left that meeting astonished by what I had seen," she said. "And I thought, 'Oh, I can take a year and write a U.S. history. No big deal.' It took ten years from the time I started until I actually had a book in hand. And I expected it to be one book. It never occurred to me it would end up ten books.”

This isn't boring!

But it did, and the kids love them.

In one history class at Graland Country Day School in Denver, students are reading one book from Hakim's "A History of Us" series to guide discussions on the Civil War.

"It’s a page turner for sure," says seventh grader Ryan Gaghen. "You don’t realize how much you’re actually learning because it keeps you engaged.”

“It makes me actually want to keep reading instead of saying, 'Oh my gosh, this is over. Thank God!' as I do in other textbooks,” says William Forbes, another student.

WATCH: A History of US in school

Desculpe, mas seu navegador não oferece suporte a vídeo incorporado deste tipo, você pode baixar este vídeo para visualizá-lo offline.

How did Hakim do it? First, she avoided typical publishing protocol, which calls for a collaborate committee of writers she decided her books would have a greater impact if she was the one and only author.

“When you think of the books that you like, the literary books . it’s an author talking to the reader," she says. "Especially somebody who has some passion. I really care about what I’m writing.”

The second rule: everyone needs an editor. So, Hakim recruited world-class subject experts — plus a highly specialized team of product testers. “I actually paid children to be my editors," she says with a laugh. "And then I gave them a code. When you read this manuscript, put in the margin B for boring, G for good, NC for not clear.”

Teaching by telling stories

Most importantly, Hakim says she focused on the time-honored tradition of explaining through stories. Her series has now sold millions of copies and been honored with teacher and parent’s choice awards. So have her science books, including one that starts like this:

Fifteen year old Albert Einstein is miserable. He is trying to finish high school in Germany, but he hates the school, it’s a strict, rigid place. To make things worse, his parents have moved to Italy. They think he should stay behind until his schooling is completed.

Young Einstein gets expelled, and no one today knows exactly why. But Hakim continues the story: . a letter from the school provides a powerful clue. ‘Your presence in the class is disruptive and affects the other students.’

Now who can't relate to that, at some point or another during their education?

Of course, this story has a happy ending: Einstein becomes one of the world’s leading scientists. It’s a theme — that kids don’t have to give up despite setbacks — that appeals to Josiah Davis, another young student of history.

“My favorite story was in [the Civil War book] War, Terrible War, which took place in 1855 to 1865," he says. "It was Chapter Seven, [the part] about Abraham Lincoln and how he went from a country boy basically to a president, and so it’s sort of inspiring to see how someone really small in the world can do something really big.”

Inspiring students to do something big is why history teacher Beth Gaffga uses Hakim’s books for class discussions. She says one of her favorite sentences in the series describes the Reconstruction period after the Civil War as, "hopeless, hopeful times." Talking with Hakim, she says she keeps that phrase on her whiteboard while students learn about the period.

“I have them make predictions," Gaffga says. "What’s going to be hopeless about it. What might be hopeful. And what’s awful and what’s noble. Your sentences make us think, is what I like.”

Hakim is now writing a new series about evolution and biology.

She says it’s challenging to find publishers for the alternative textbooks she writes, but she’ll keep trying for the sake of children and stories that help people think.


With History 100, you receive:

Instructor's Guide

Your History 100 Instructor's Guide (IG) weaves all your materials into one exciting and cohesive program. Starting in this upper-level program, each course includes both a Parent Guide and a separate Student Guide. This means you'll get a History and Bible Parent Guide, as well as a History and Bible Student Guide.

Your Parent Guide mirrors the Student Guide, but also includes answers, provides extra notes and allows you to check their progress and discuss their reading. This format allows you to be as engaged or as hands-off as you and your students like.

História

I built the 100-level program on the foundation of Joy Hakim's award-winning A History of US Series. Her volumes are some of the most fascinating histories I've ever read. Filled with photos, illustrations and political cartoons from across the decades, Hakim draws you in to the story of our nation.

Some homeschoolers use these books with younger students. The books' language is certainly easy enough to understand. But we use them at the junior and senior high levels because of the author's attention to details (like the devastation of the Civil War, Prohibition and the civil unrest of the 1960s) that are simply not as important for elementary students to think about. We also move more quickly through each volume than younger students could.

We balance Hakim's more liberal perspective with extensive notes in the Instructor's Guide. These notes offer counter-arguments to some of Hakim's perspectives. Com A History of US and the IG combined, you have an extraordinary tool to help your children think critically about and truly understand American History.

In addition to A History of US, many other Sonlight 100 books bring life to American History. Some highlights include:

  • True tales of American patriots who established a government of free people apart from a king.
  • Real-life glimpses into the wars that shaped American History.
  • The gripping true story of a country preacher who took the gospel to New York City's fiercest gang leaders in the 1960s.
  • And more.

Biblical Studies

Teach your children to live out their faith. The Sonlight 100 Bible program includes Scripture reading and practical lessons in how to study, interpret and apply the Scriptures in everyday life. Help your students build their theological framework, explore the evidence for our faith and develop discipline in prayer. I put this program together to help you raise children who love God and know what and why they believe.


Al-Ḥākim

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Al-Ḥākim, na íntegra Al-ḥākim Bi-amr Allāh (Arabic: “Ruler by God’s Command”), called by Druzes Al-ḥākim Bi-amrih (“Ruler by His Own Command”), nome original Abū ʿalī Al-manṣūr, apelido The Mad Caliph, (born 985—died 1021?), sixth ruler of the Egyptian Shīʿite Fāṭimid dynasty, noted for his eccentricities and cruelty, especially his persecutions of Christians and Jews. He is held by adherents of the Druze religion to be a divine incarnation.

Al-Ḥākim was named caliph in 996 and depended at first on the Berber regiments in his army for his power. When he took control of government, his policies proved to be arbitrary and harsh. He ordered, for example, the sacking of the city al-Fusṭāṭ (near present-day Cairo), the killing of all dogs (whose barking annoyed him), and bans on various kinds of vegetables and shellfish. His religious persecutions affected Sunnite Muslims as well as Jews and Christians. At times, however, his administration was tolerant. During famines he distributed food and tried to stabilize prices. He also founded mosques and patronized scholars and poets. In 1017 he began to encourage the teachings of some Ismāʿīlī missionaries (members of the radical Shīʿite sect to which his dynasty belonged), who held that he was the incarnation of divinity. The Druze religion developed from the teaching of these men.

Al-Ḥākim mysteriously vanished while taking a walk on the night of Feb. 13, 1021.


Historical introduction to philosophy

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Albert Hakim - History


A Brief History Of The Hakimi Family

Foreword: In early 1980's or in and around the time of revolution in Iran, I was about 20 years old and studying for a degree in England. My best friend from high school in Teheran was also studying in England and from time to time I used to stay with him in London. He lived in a complex of apartments in the West End of London. At the time, there were quite a number of other Iranians living there. My friend had always been more impressed than I was with my mother's family pedigree. Soon as he learnt there was a Hakimi living there, he made his acquaintance and eventually introduced us.

I found Mr. Manouchehr Hakimi a slim, tall, white haired, elegant and very kind gentleman from Shiraz, the capital of the Pars (or Fars) Province in Iran. Shiraz is one of the oldest, famous and beautiful cities in Iran. A city where one of the main branches of Hakimi's established itself during the Qajar period owing to their association with the Prince Regent of the time, the infamous Mirza (Prince) Malek Mansour Shoja-ol-Saltaneh. It was customary for the Qajar Prince Regents to be appointed as Governors of Fars and its capital Shiraz was an important seat of government. Unknowingly M Hakimi started my interest in the family history by giving me a copy of a photo of Hakimis in attendance with the Qajar King Mozzafar-e-Din Shah during a state visit to England. On its back, the names of some of the Persian courtiers and politicians were written.

A few years later I was visiting Germany where my sister lives, my cousin from Norway happened to be visiting with his children, the fact that our children did not know each other, were missing the common thread that had bound our family together in Iran, was quite telling of life outside Iran. The above experiences motivated me to try and put this site together.

Although this was not meant to be an exhaustive history through the very kind help of Thomas Rochford (creator of the fantastic Isfahan site), Daee's old friend Mr. Karimzadeh Tabrizi who provided the material from Dr Honarfar's book ( 3 ), Auntie Fataneh, and Parviz Hakimi gave me the clues to research the most exciting story of the beginning of family fortunes which I have tried to narrate below and pages linked. I would have been completely stuck had it not been for Siamak Nikopoor's translation of the Arabic texts of the Hakim Mosque inscriptions. Many thanks also to Massoud Gharajehedaghi whose enthusiasm and support has been tremendous. A number of the pages would simply have not been possible without his contribution and Massoud has checked and rechecked all the pages. The work that we have put in this has been a labour of love and a pleasure. I have tried to design this pages with our children as the primary audience in mind.

Hamid, 21st September 2000, London

We can trace our ancestry back for at least 350 years. In addition to historical references and documents recording the contribution made by the more prominent members of the family to Persian society, there is in Iran a detailed very well documented family tree maintained by Parviz Hakimi. There is an abridged version of the family tree and copies of some of the documents mentioned above available on this site.

To understand some aspects of our family history , let's start with the name, the word Hakim has two meanings, wise and physician or doctor. The ending i simply denotes belonging (in this instance a profession). It was customary in Persia to use one's family profession as part of one's name similar to other societies such as Smiths and Archers in England. Many generations of Hakimis were distinguished physicians and served in the courts of Persian kings. They were honoured and given the title Hakim-el-Molk or literally physician to the land or king.

In early twentieth century when western style surnames were adopted in Iran, they simply used their old family professional name Hakimi as a surname. The maternal influence was very strong, so much so that a number of the children chose their mothers' family name (for example my great grandfather was not a Hakimi yet my grand father and his siblings chose to be callled Hakimi).

Using the above family tree one can trace the Hakimis' beginning to a 17th century physician called Mohammad Davoud (David), his title was Hakim so as not to confuse him with other Mohammad Davouds. He was physician to Shah (King) Safi I and Shah Abbas II of the Safavid dynasty, rulers of Iran in the seventeenth century. He lived in Isfahan: the capital of Iran at that time. The abridged tree starts with Mohammad Davoud and Mirza Hassan Hakim Bashi (Mirza and Bashi are starting and ending titles, Mirza can mean both a Prince and Mister, his name in English would be written as Mr. Hassan, Chief Physician) under Hassan's name it is written that he was "fifth generation after Mohammad Davoud Hakim Physician to Shah Abbas II, and Founder Of the Hakim Mosque". The Hakim Mosque exists today and appears in books about Persian monuments. For a virtual tour of Isfahan and the Hakim Mosque visit the Isfahan website designed by Thomas C Rochford. The information on the web page dedicated to the Hakim Mosque on the Isfahan site pointed the way to finding out what we now know about Mohammad Davoud.

While living in India, Mohammad Davoud financed the building of the Hakim Mosque which was completed in 1662 on the site of an earlier 10th century mosque. Before going to India, Mohammad Davoud Hakim was a prominent member of the Safavid court in Iran. Mohammad Davoud had to leave the court of Shah Abbas II under mysterious circumstances and spent the rest of his life in India and in the court of the Truco-Persian rulers of India. He is mentioned in the writings of 17th century European travelers of the time, namely Sir John (Jean) Chardin a French traveller in Iran, Francois Bernier a French physician who traveled in mid 17th century India, and Manucci a Venetian who traveled and lived in India 3, 4 & 5 & 10 . He became a prominent member of the court of the Mongol Emperor of India, Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his beloved wife and then his son Aurengzeb, which allowed him to send funds to his family in Isfahan to build the mosque and preserve their status in society.

Prior to the rise of the English in India, the Persians occupied very senior positions in the court of Indian rulers. Persian was the official language of the court and Persians often served as physicians, lord chamberlins, administrators and chancellors. The picture of Aurangzeb above is an Indian document currently in the British Museum (where else?) yet it is a Persian miniature and the text at the bottom is in Persian: "Shuja, Aurenzeb, and Murad Baksh" - Shuja and Murad Baksh were his brothers. The nobles in the court were referred to as Omara meaning chieftans. Mohammad Davoud Hakim is listed in the books about nobility of India of this period.

In later periods other descendants of Mohammad Davoud became physicians to the court and their role as physicians to the court of Qajar (1770-1925) is well recorded. In those times it was quite usual for sons to follow in their fathers' footsteps and continue the family tradition. We have documented evidence of two Hakimi ancestors being given the title Hakim-el-Molk during the Qajar reign. They were Mirza Mahmoud Khan and Ebrahim Hakimi. They were uncle and nephew and since the both the same title this can cause confusion. Indeed Persian titles make study of history very confusing at times. Unlike Europe the noble families in the East, did not enjoy automatic hereditary rights as everything belonged to the king. Although a title would often pass from father to son, it was not a given right. Indeed sometimes the kings would remove a person's title who had either died or fallen out of favour and grant it to someone unrelated.

Hakimis also beame involved in politics and held senior posts in various branches of government and the military. Notable examples were: Mirza Ali Naghi Hakim Bashi physician to Mozzafar-e-din Shah (ruled 1896-1907) when the latter was the crown prince, Mirza Abolhassan Hakim Bashi physician to the court of Qajars, Mirza Mahmoud Khan Hakim-el-Molk (Ali Naghi's son) was physician to Mozzafar-e-Din Shah and Minister of the Imperial Court. Mirza Mahmoud became one of the well known courtiers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. His nephew who everyone usually recognises as Hakim-el-Molk, Mirza Ebrahim (Abraham in English) Khan Hakim-el-Molk, or using his modern name Ebrahim Hakimi was one of the founding fathers of democracy in Iran as he became one of the leaders of the movement for constitutional monarchy in Iran. Before he became one of the leaders of the 1906 revolution he worked behind the scenes to bring a peaceful end to the revolution.

He made sure the Shah was aware of the aims and feelings of people thereby preventing the reactionary members of the Qajar dynasty from tainting the Shah's view of the constitutional movement who believed wrongly that the ultimate aim of the revolution was to overthrow the Qajars. It is said that Ebrahim used to slip revolutionary material (shab nameh) into Mozzafar-e-din Shah's palace at night and place it under his pillow. Ebrahim was elected to the first parliament in 1907 and left the court after the death of Mozzafar-e-Din Shah as he found the political atmosphere in the Qajar Court stifling. He held numerous ministerial posts, some times at very crucial stages in the history of Iran. According to historians he was brave, honest and a hard working patriotic politician. It is very hard for us to imagine the conditions of Iran in the late 19th and early 20th century when corruption and colonial interference was tearing the country apart.

In 1909 Ibrahim was one of the leaders of the committee responsible for restoration of constitutional monarchy and running of the country after Mohammad Ali Shah's dethronement and exile to Russia ( 1 ). Since he had an impeccable reputation as a man of integrity and honesty he was put in charge of reforming the court and riding the court of all the corrupt Qajar family courtiers. The young Shah was about 12 years velho. One of Ebrahim's first acts was to fire Sultan Ahmad Shah's Russian Tutor (Lieutenant Smirnoff) who was suspected of being a Russian spy (1 & 8). This seemingly trivial act was in fact a very courageous for its time, in those days Iran was centre stage for 'The Great Game' or the competition between two powerful colonial powers, Russian and Britain. Iranian ruling class and government had become for the most part subservient to the two colonial powers and people in the government rarely acted without first consulting the representatives of the great powers. In fact the dimissal of Smirnoff caused a big diplomatic row with the Russian government. The Russians insisted on Smirnoff's reinstatement, but the revolutionary leaders remained resolute and supported Ebrahim's decision. He then established a school for the young Shah with Iranian tutors and schoolmates(7). The tutors were prominent Iranian scholars such as Zoka-el-Molk (Foroughi) who later during Reza Shah rejuvenated the Persian language by reintroducing Persian vocabulary to replace Arabic vocabulary.

During the fight with Mohammad Ali Shah, Ebrahim's brother General Musa (Moses) Nazm-ol-Saltaneh also showed exceptional bravery. He was one of the senior commanders in the Qajar military, yet during the 1906 revolution he joined the ranks of the freedom fighters defending the newly found democracy. He was one of the military commanders of the freedom fighters who regained the control of Teheran and drove away the Russian led forces of Mohammad Ali Qajar who had tried to overturn constitutional monarchy by having the Russian led Persian Cossack Brigade bombarding the Parliament with their artillary.

Ebrahim held many senior ministerial positions during the Qajar period and later under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. He had withdrawn from politics during the reign of Reza Shah. Toward the end of the Second World War, Ebrahim became prime minister of Iran three times during crucial stages of Iranian history. He and his peers from 1906 played an intricate game of playing the now three super powers (America, Britain and Soviet Russia) to keep Iran's independence. The independence of the country was seriously under threat in 1945 (1324) from the Russians. When he became prime minister, most of northern Iran was under Russian occupation and the Red Army had dug in 5 miles outside Teheran's gates with no intention of leaving. In contravention to the agreement made among the Allies, the Russians had illegally also occupied the North East and East of the country. He instructed the Foreign Minister in his cabinet - Anoshiravan Sepahbodi - to give written notice to the Allies to leave Iran as the Second World war had come to an end and there was no justification for the occupying troops to remain in Iran. His team brought one of the first complaints to the Security Council of the newly formed United Nations in London. This started a well recorded chapter in history of Iran (1).

My grandfather who I was named after, Abdolhamid Hakimi served in variety of senior government positions and ministries as a career civil servant. But that is a poor description for someone with such a wide experience who occupied numerous roles all at the forefront of Iranian modernisation before and after the second world war. He either oversaw or was closely involved in bringing major reforms such as: introduction of standard Persian text books for schools in Iran, Project Manager for the first Medical faculty in Iran (Teheran University), English replacing French as a second language in Iranian education system, and Land reform. As a permanent undersecretary in Ministry of Agriculture implemented the plan to reform the feudal system of land ownership in Iran as decreed by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reform of the ancient feudal structure was by far the biggest reform in Iranian society since it changed at a stroke thousands of years of feudal ownership of agricultural land. The above reforms were opposed not only by the landowners but by the clergy as land bequeathed to the clergy for charity provided them with their financial base. The reform made the rift between the Pahlavi dynasty and the clergy ever wider. Abdolhamid held liberal attitudes in all aspects of life. His first wife Nossrat Taslimi Moghadam, was among the first women to shed the veil long before women's liberation as a civil servant in the Ministry of Education and later became a magistrate. She was a member of the women's association.


Hakim, Albert B.

Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2006

Usado - capa mole
Condição: Muito Bom

Brochura. Condição: muito bom. Dust Jacket Condition: No Dust Jacket. Fifth Edition. Gently used in very good condition. The text appears clean throughout the book. The pages look great and so does the cover. May have some light wear from storage such as corner bumps and dings. Multiple copies available this title. Quantity Available: 12. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilo. ISBN: 0131900056. ISBN/EAN: 9780131900059. Pictures of this item not already displayed here available upon request. Inventory No: 1561049144.


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Comentários:

  1. Ham

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  3. Minh

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  4. Maza Blaska

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  6. Ayabusa

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